Surplus Funds - World Bank

Surplus Funds - World Bank

Energy Week 2006 The World Bank Group Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Clean Fossil Energy Opportunities: CO2 Capture and Storage Dr. Jacek Podkanski International Energy Agency [email protected] INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY AGENCE INTERNATIONALE DE LENERGIE What is CO2 capture & storage? Capturing CO2 from the gas streams emitted during electricity production, industrial processes or fuel processing Transporting the captured CO2 by pipeline or in tankers Storing CO2 underground in deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs or unminable coal seams INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

AGENCE INTERNATIONALE DE LENERGIE Global CO2 emissions PROSPECTS FOR CO2 CAPTURE AND STORAGE Energy Technology Scenarios Emission stabilisation Marginal CO2 abatement cost PROSPECTS FOR CO2 CAPTURE AND STORAGE Energy Technology Scenarios

Capture at various CO2 prices 25 20 FOR CO2 CAPTURE AND STORAGE [Gt CO2/yr] PROSPECTS 15 GLO100 GLO50 GLO25 10 5 0

2000 Energy Technology Scenarios 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 CO2 capture by process area PROSPECTS FOR CO2 CAPTURE AND STORAGE Energy Technology Scenarios

CO2 emissions from electricity generation 18 16 14 PROSPECTS FOR AND STORAGE 12 [Gton CO2] CO2 CAPTURE 0$ 10$ 25$ 25$ NoCCS 50$ 50$ NoCCS 10 8

6 4 2 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Energy Technology Scenarios Electricity production by power plants fitted with CCS, by region PROSPECTS FOR CO2 CAPTURE AND STORAGE Energy Technology Scenarios Fuel market implications: CCS impact on coal use at 50$/t CO2 400 PROSPECTS

FOR CO2 CAPTURE AND STORAGE [EJ/yr] 300 200 CCS impact 100 0 2000 No CO2 policy 50 US$/t CO2, CCS 50 US$/t CO2, no CCS

2050 2050 2050 2050: 50$/t CO2 results in 80% or 40% decline in coal use, depending on availability of CCS Energy Technology Scenarios Challenges RD&D gaps PROSPECTS FOR CO2 CAPTURE Public awareness and acceptance AND STORAGE Legal and regulatory framework

Long-term policy framework and incentives Energy Technology Scenarios Carbon Capture & Storage Research, Development, Demonstration and Deployment PROSPECTS FOR CO2 CAPTURE AND STORAGE

US EU Canada Australia Germany UK Norway France Italy Japan, Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum International Energy Agency Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) World Energy Council Bilateral Agreements, Alstom ExxonMobil BP EniTecnologie SpA ChevronTexaco

EPRI Shell International RWE AG Total Rio Tinto, Schlumberger, Energy Technology Scenarios Programme Members 18 Member Countries 13 Industrial Sponsors Japanese Vision - Development for 21st Century Japanese Roadmap Development Starting Point Japanese C3 Initiative toward ZET Coal Utilisation 2 0 0

5 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 5 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 5 2 0 3 0 Assim ilationwith Realizationofzero2 0 0

4 Improvementofheatefficiency separation/fixing technologies 6/kW h* Coal gasification technology A irblow ing gasification Oxygenblow ing Dem onstration test R& D 46-48% (Transm

ission-end efficiency) Com m ercial facilityof IGFC Dem onstrationtest Fixing technolog CO 2 separation/ recovery R& D R& D Dem

onstratio ntest Z e o --ee m is n Z er r o m isssio io n A-IGCC/ A-IGFC >65%(Transm ission-end efficiency) Gasification

furnacefor industrial use F/S 6-7/kW h 55%(Transm ission-end efficiency) gasification H igh-grade coal gasification em ission A-IGCC A-IGFC

Dem onstrationtest F C 2 C O FC H y d ro g e n Dem onstrationtest of thenew separationandrecovery technologies Deploym

enttofully-fledgedstorage CO 2fixing R D Dem onstrationtest Ontheassum ptionthat theam ount isthesam easthecurrent unit priceofcoal-firedpowergeneration(5.9/kW h ascalculatedonatrial basisbytheFederationofElectricPow erCom paniesofJapan) Tim ingof com m ercialization

Japanese R&D Programme IGCC Demonstration Project Demonstration of 250 MW IGCC (based on oxygen enriched air blown gasifier) to be operational by 2007 Target efficiency (LHV basis) ~ 48% Energy Application for Gas, Liquid and Electricity (EAGLE) Programme Target to deploy 50 MWe IGFC by 2010 (for distributed electricity) Target to deploy 600 MWe IGFC by 2020 Oxy-Combustion Development International cooperation with Australia Hyper-Coal Project (Ultra Clean Coal Project) International cooperation with Australia Target to produce coal processed to remove ash and other undesirable components which will be fired directly in a turbine. Australia Coal21 Action Plan Lignite Drying Pilot Black & Brown Coal IGCC with CO2 Capture Geological

Storage of CO2 Oxyfuel Combustion Ultra-Clean Coal 2000 Implement Demo Pilot Demo Eval Pilot Pilot 2005 Commercial

Demo Commercial Demo Commercial Demo 2010 Commercial 2015 2020 2025 2030 Australian R&D Programme Oxy-Combustion Development Japanese-Australian cooperation Pilot Scale study for PC Boiler Retrofit (25 MWe) Callide A Project

IGCC Demonstration Plant Programme Demonstration of IGCC with carbon capture programme Pilot plant study (16 MW and 65 MW) 200 MW will be commissioned at Stanwell Power Station by 2010 depending on the outcome of the feasibility study IDGCC for brown coal Target to commission 800 MWe IDGCC by 2010 100 MW IDGCC demonstration project is currently at site selection and costing stage. Decision to proceed will be made by mid-2006 Ultra Clean Coal Development Programme International cooperation with the Japanese (Hyper Coal Project) A relationship was developed with the Chinese power utilities USA Roadmap Development Principle Short-term: keep existing fleet in service; prepare for transition to nearzero-emission future SO2, NOx, Hg Plant optimization and control Reduced carbon intensity Long-term: add near-zero emission energy plants IGCCs to market Advanced materials Ultra-high efficiency hybrid systems CO2 capture and storage Rev. 071404 USA Roadmap Development Global Climate Change Initiative set a target of 18% GHG emission intensity reduction by 2012 (baseline year 2001) Future Gen Integrated Sequestration and Hydrogen Research Initiative US$ 1 Billion 10 year programme Target to demonstration a 275MW polygeneration plant by 2015 Turbine of the Future Programme Development of Gas Turbine firing with H2 rich fuel Rev. 071404 USA: Overview of the FutureGen Programme Fuel Cells

Gasification with Cleanup Separation Carbon Sequestration H2 Production Optimized Turbines System Integration USA Roadmap Development Clean Coal Technology Clean Coal Power Initiative (2001 2011) US $ 2 Billion over 10 years Power Plant Improvement Initiative (2001) Focus on efficiency improvement and emission reduction VISION 21 Programme 21st Century Power

Plant Material Development Programme Development of boiler material to achieve operating steam temperature greater than 750oC Rev. 071404 Vision 21 Programme - Strategy German: COORETEC Programme Potential of Utilisation on Time Scale 2050 ZeroEmission Power Plant Vision 2020 HybridPower Plant

Materials 800C Steam PP =55% Gas pp =65% 2015 IGCC Demo OxyfuelDemo Min. Leaks Steam PP =50% Gas PP >60% 2010 Procedures 2005 Capture CO2-Reservoirs with Membranes Materials 700C

CO2/H2-Turbine Protection Materials Systems CO2Wash Strategielinie: Effizienz low Strategielinie:CO2-Capture/ Storage medium Risk of R&D high UK: CAT Options are complementary Carbon Reduction Key issue will be value of CO2

`Zero Emissions` Trajectory `Increased Efficiency` Trajectory Zero emissions will need the most efficient plant Near-term Mid-term Long-term Time EC: CO2 Capture and Storage R&D Policy A Priority in Long Term Energy R&D in FP6 (2002-2006) Capture and sequestration of CO2, associated with cleaner fossil fuel plants. Targets: reduce the cost of CO2 capture from 50-60 to 20-30 per tonne of CO2 captured, whilst aiming at achieving capture rates above 90%, and assess the reliability and long term

stability of sequestration. Components of FP7 Continued focus on Carbon Capture and Storage Re-introduction of Clean Coal Technology in recognition of the drive for greater efficiency whilst CCS is developed and deployed Technology Platform to advise on strategy and direction of these two elements European Based R&D Programme CCS Projects Enhanced Capture of CO2 in Large Power Plant (ENCAP) Project FP6 funded project CO2 from Capture and Storage (CASTOR) FP6 funded project dealing with post-combustion capture ISCC (In-situ CO2 Capture Technology for Solid Fuel Gasification) FP6 funded project Vattenfall taking the initiative 30 MW pilot plant study Polygeneration of Hydrogen and Electricity HYPOGEN Project

Material Development Programme Component Test Facility for a 700oC Power Plant (COMTES700) RFCS funded project continuation of AD700 programme International Energy Agency Working Party on Fossil Fuels and IEA Clean Coal Centre G8 Plan of Action: Cleaner Fossil Fuels Global database with complete information on efficiency of fossil-based electricity generation Report on potential of upgrades and replacement Report on best practices in power plant operation Report on potential of future developments Series of case studies on recently constructed plants Global conference and three

regional workshops Joint effort of IEA and IEA Clean Coal Centre in collaboration with the World Bank, European Commission, World Energy Council, VGB, EOn Focus on Russia and +Five Developing Countries Final Report to the G8 in mid-2008 WB/IFIs: Review of deliverables INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY AGENCE INTERNATIONALE DE LENERGIE International Energy Agency Working Party on Fossil Fuels and IEA GHG R&D Programme G8 Plan of Action: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Workshop on Early CCS Opportunities: CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, CO2 Separation from Natural Gas - organised jointly by the IEAs WPFF and Oil and Gas Advisory Group, Chevron, US Energy Association, IEA GHG R&D Programme and EOR R&D; - San Francisco, 22-23 August 2006;

- gathering of professionals from industry and research institutions: information exchange, preparation of dissemination and popularization conference; - follow-up publication; - conferences to disseminate information and popularise early opportunities (2007). Coordination with the CSLF INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Involvement of developing countries AGENCE INTERNATIONALE DE LENERGIE International Energy Agency Working Party on Fossil Fuels and IEA GHG R&D Programme G8 Plan of Action: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Study on capture ready plant: -

Engineering and cost study on capture ready plant (GHG R&D Programme, on going subcontracting process); - Report on policy instruments and incentives for capture ready plant (IEA Secretariat); - Dissemination efforts Coordination with the CSLF Involvement of developing countries INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY AGENCE INTERNATIONALE DE LENERGIE Long-term policy framework and incentives In addition to the acceleration of RD&D funding, countries should create a level-playing field for CCS alongside other climate change mitigation technologies. This includes ensuring that various climate change mitigation instruments, including

market-oriented trading schemes, are adapted to include CCS. INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY AGENCE INTERNATIONALE DE LENERGIE Conclusions CCS can play a key role in addressing global warming mainly through coal plants in coal-rich regions but efficiency first but also some natural gas opportunities Carbon incentives are needed, but also: Proven technology too early to pick up winning technology Acceptable storage


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