Sustainability in Geotechnical Engineering

Sustainability in Geotechnical Engineering

SUSTAINABILITY IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING ASCE GEO-INSTITUTE SUSTAINABILITY IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING COMMITTEE JULY 2017 PRESENTATION OUTLINE What is sustainability? Sustainable engineering Sustainability in geotechnical engineering Resilience and sustainability Sustainability assessment tools/methodology Case studies WHAT IS SUSTAINABILITY? Learning objectives of this module: To understand the origins, concepts, and fundamental principles of sustainability

ORIGINS OF SUSTAINABILITY IDEA Environmentalism in the 19th century and contemporary environmentalism in 1970s were the roots to the fundamentals of sustainability Key triggers to the idea of sustainability Degradation of Earths life-supporting capacity Growing awareness on environmental problems Socio-economic issues (i.e., poverty and inequality) Impacts of current generations decision-making on future generations Prepared by: Mina Lee DEFINITIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY Defined in the United Nations Our Common Future Brundtland Report in 1987

Sustainability is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs Prepared by: Mina Lee ASCE DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABILITY A set of environmental, economic, and social conditions the Triple Bottom Line in which all of society has the capacity and opportunity to maintain and improve its quality of life indefinitely, without degrading the quantity, quality, or the availability of natural, economic, and social resources Prepared by: Tugce Baser

TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE Functional definition of sustainability: Sustainability should be evaluated with respect to three fundamental criteria: environment, economic, and society Prepared by: Mina Lee SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING Learning objectives of this module: To understand the role of engineers in sustainable development

ASCE CODE OF ETHICS Canon 1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public and shall strive to comply with the principles of sustainable development in the performance of their professional duties. Canon 2. Engineers shall perform services only in areas of their competence. Canon 3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. Canon 4. Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest. Canon 5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on the merit of their services and shall not compete unfairly with others. Canon 6. Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honor, integrity, and dignity of the engineering profession and shall act with zero tolerance for bribery, fraud, and corruption. Canon 7. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers, and shall provide opportunities for the professional development of those engineers under their supervision.

Prepared by: Krishna Reddy ASCE POLICY STATEMENTS Policy 418: Civil Engineers Role in Sustainable Development: the reality of limited natural resources the desire for sustainable practices

the need for social equity in resource consumption Principle 1: Do the right project Triple Bottom-Line sustainability context Principle 2: Do the project right Perform life-cycle assessment Use resources wisely

Plan for resiliency Validate application of principles Prepared by: Mina Lee ASCE POLICY STATEMENTS Policy 517: Millennium Development Goals (now Sustainable Development Goals) Engineers play a critical role in contributing to peace and security obligation to provide solutions to meet the basic needs of all humans for water, sanitation, food, health, and energy at the same time, protecting cultural and natural diversity, conserving resources, and using them sustainably

Prepared by: Mina Lee UNITED NATIONS: 2030 AGENDA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 17 goals and169 associated targets Agreed in September 2015 and effective in January 1, 2016 Prepared by: Krishna Reddy SUSTAINABILITY APPROACHES

Gagnon et al. (2008) Prepared by: Mina Lee and Tugce Baser Basu et al. (2015) SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES Reference Principles World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Our Common Future marks the emergence of sustainable development as an authorized concept. The report lists seven strategic imperatives encompassing what is now known as the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development.

Ceres (1989) The Ceres principles are a 10-point code of conduct for companies: protection of the biosphere, sustainable use of natural resources, waste reduction and disposal, energy conservation, risk reduction, safe products and services, environmental restoration, information for the public, management commitment, audits and reports. United Nations (1992) The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development contains 27 principles dealing with: environmental protection, poverty alleviation, international collaboration, production and consumption, capacity-building, participation, precaution, and peace. Haughton (1999) There are five key equity principles to sustainable development: equity within and between generations, geographic equity or crossborder responsibility, procedural equity, and equity between species composing biodiversity.

Earth Charter Initiative (2000) The Earth Charter is based on four themes: respect and care for the community of life; ecological integrity; social and economic justice; democracy, nonviolence and peace. These four themes are then each broken down into four more detailed principles. Valentin and Spangenberg (2000) Principles of sustainable development are structured around four thematic imperatives (one for each dimension, i.e., economic, social, environmental and institutional) and six interthematic links (one for each bidimensional interconnection). Prepared by: Mina Lee SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES (CONT) Robert et al. (2002)

Ten authors present four principles of sustainability making up the Natural Step Framework, as well as 13 principles of sustainable development which can be applied in more practical terms. Parris and Kates (2003) Three elements are to be sustained (nature, life support. and community) and three elements are to be developed (people, economy and society). Two or three goals are defined for each element, for a total of 17 sustainable development goals. Becker (2005) Sustainable systems are assumed to have three general characteristics (resilience, selfsufficiency, and collaboration), which in turn, are subdivided into three indicators to facilitate their measurement. Swiss Federal Statistical Office (2005) Sustainable development is defined by three main elements (social solidarity, economic

efficiency, and ecological responsibility) and by 45 postulates classified in 20 categories. United Kingdom Government (2005) The UK sustainable development strategy contains five principles: living within environmental limits; ensuring a strong, healthy and just society; achieving a sustainable economy; promoting good governance; and using sound science responsibly. Many countries (Sweden, France, Columbia, etc.) adopted such strategies. Government of Manitoba (1997) and Government of Quebec (2006) The Government of Manitoba and Quebec adopted Sustainable Development Acts respectively defining 13 and 16 principles. Other governments passed similar legislation: Estonia (1995), Belgium (1997), Oregon (2001), Luxemburg (2004), and Canada (2008).

Gagnon et al. (2008) Prepared by: Mina Lee SUSTAINABILITY IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING Learning objectives of this module: To recognize the importance of sustainable practices in geotechnical engineering SUSTAINABLE CONSIDERATIONS Sustainable systems/designs Examples: ground improvement techniques; foundations; geothermal energy foundations geosynthetics;

reuse of existing Sustainable materials Examples: recycled or waste materials (fly ash, bottom ash, shredded scrap tires, glass, quarry fines, blast furnace slag); bioengineered materials; geosynthetics Sustainable energies Example: geothermal energy Sustainable construction and maintenance technologies Example: sustainable ground improvement techniques Prepared by: Mina Lee

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FOUNDATIONS Prepared by: Tugce Baser RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY Learning objectives of this module: To understand the need of resilience in sustainable development RESILIENCE CONCEPT Resilience refers to the capacity to mitigate against significant allhazards risks and incidents and to expeditious recovery and reconstitution of critical services with minimum damage to public safety and health, the economy,

and national security Prepared by: Mina Lee Basu et al. (2015) POTENTIAL DISRUPTIVE EVENTS Gradual deterioration from ageing, exacerbated by adverse ground conditions (including chemical, biological, and physical threats) Damage due to surface loading or stress relief due to open-cut interventions Severely increased demand and ever-changing (different, or altered) demands Terrorism Effects of climate change Effects of population increase, including increasing population density Funding constraints Severe natural hazards (extreme weather events, earthquakes, landslides, etc.) Prepared by: Mina Lee

RELEVANCE WITH SUSTAINABILITY Sustainability Attribute of dynamic and adaptive systems that are able to flourish and grow in the face of uncertainty and constant change Require innovation, foresight, and effective partnerships among corporations, governments, and other groups to achieve sustainability Resilience Resilient systems perpetually evolve

through cycles of growth, accumulation, crisis, and renewal as well as often selforganize into unexpected new configurations Disruptive/extreme events are unpredictable For systems to be sustainable, it is necessary to ensure that the system is inherently capable of bouncing back to its functionality irrespective of the nature or magnitude of shock or distress to which it is subjected. Such systems are called resilient systems Prepared by: Tugce Baser and Mina Lee CONTRASTING SUSTAINABILITY AND RESILIENCE Resilience Sustainability

Keywords Recovery, extreme events, disaster management, functionality, infrastructure, lifelines, networks, communities Holistic, green, life cycle, life-cycle assessment, life-cycle costing, social costing, sustainable development, indicators, rating Dimensions Technical, organizational, social, economic Environmental, economic, social Objectives Achieving robustness against disturbances and

rapidity in recovery Reduction of impacts and resource consumption in the three dimensions, inter- and intra-generational fairness Quantification methods Quantified by index as a function of performance indicators Mostly based on indices summarizing different quantitative and qualitative indicators; result is a score Spatial scale Community and network level

Building level Instruments and calculation methods Life cycle costing, external costs, user costs, extreme events simulation Life cycle assessment, life cycle costing, external costs, user costs, and multi-criteria analysis Prepared by: Mina Lee Bocchini et al. 2014 RESILIENCE IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING Resilient geotechnical infrastructure are prepared for and robust against potential

disruptive events Sustainable development can be achieved if less expenditures are spent for maintaining and repairing existing geotechnical infrastructure over its lifespan Both resilience and sustainability should be considered in geotechnical infrastructure to minimize impacts on the public Foundations Embankments, levees, and dams Earth retaining structures Tunnels Prepared by: Mina Lee SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT TOOLS Learning objectives of this module: To present different available tools that may be used to assess the sustainability of a given project

SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING Sustainability assessment is the missing link in the traditional geotechnical design Sustainability assessment in geotechnical project allows to: Compare potential alternative designs Optimize the design to improve sustainability Prepared by: Tugce Baser and Mina Lee Misra and Basu (2011) TYPES SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT TOOLS Quantitative vs. Qualitative Metrics and indicators Rating-based tools (e.g., Envision, LEED, BREEAM, I-LAST, INVEST, Greenroads, STAR, SPeAR, SITES, BE2ST Highways) Carbon footprint analyzers (e.g., Deep Foundation Institute (DFI)

Carbon Calculator) Frameworks (e.g., Life-cycle assessment (LCA)) Some of these tools are more suited for direct application in geotechnical framework than others, but in principal geotechnical engineers may use any of these tools to an extent that is relevant COMMON RATING-BASED TOOLS EnVision LEED I-LAST INVEST Greenroads BE2ST Highways SITES

STAR SPeAR BREEAM ENVISION TM Infrastructure rating system May be used to evaluate, grade, and give recognition to infrastructure projects that provide progress for and contributions to a sustainable future Founded jointly by APWA, ACEC, and ASCE Hosted by Institute for Sustainable Infrastructure (ISI) EnVisions Purpose: To foster necessary and dramatic improvement in the performance and resiliency of physical infrastructure by means of economic, social, and environmental

sustainability Prepared by: Krishna Reddy https://sustainableinfrastruct ENVISION TM 60 credits divided into 5 sections: Quality of life Leadership Resource Allocation Natural World Climate and Risk

Prepared by: Krishna Reddy LEED (LEADERSHIP IN ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN) Green building certification program Applicable for new construction, existing buildings, commercial and residential buildings, neighborhood development, schools, healthcare facilities, and laboratory facilities Certification system is based on 69 points with 4 different ranks (Certified, Silver, Gold, and Platinum) 6 credit categories: Sustainable sites water efficiency energy and atmosphere materials and resources indoor environmental quality innovation and design process

Prepared by: Mina Lee /leed I-LAST (ILLINOIS LIVABLE AND SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION RATING SYSTEM AND GUIDE) Comprehensive list of practices that have potential to bring sustainable results to highway projects Developed jointly by IDOT, IRTBA, and ACEC Scoring is completed in the following categories Planning Design Environmental Water quality Not a certification program scoring is used to assess the degree of sustainable components on a given transportation project

Transportation Lighting Materials Innovation Construction Prepared by: Burak Tanyu portation-system/reports/desenv/enviromental/i-last %20v%202%2002.pdf INVEST (INFRASTRUCTURE VOLUNTARY EVALUATION SUSTAINABILITY TOOL) Self-evaluation tool to improve sustainable practices in highway programs and projects to result in social, economic, and environmental outcomes Developed by FHWA as part of Sustainable Highways Initiative Scoring is completed in four categories: System planning for States (SPS)

System planning for Regions (SPR) Project development (PD) Operations and maintenance (OM) Prepared by: Burak Tanyu https://www.sustainablehighwa GREENROADS A rating system to measure and manage sustainability on transportation projects. Developed by research conducted by University of Washington and is managed by Greenroads Foundation Rating system is only available to members who must pay fees to register their projects and access the rating Independent third-party system that awards points for sustainable design and construction

practices and can be used to certify projects Prepared by: Burak Tanyu https://www.greenroads .org/ BE2ST (BUILDING ENVIRONMENTALLY AND ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION-INFRASTRUCTUREHIGHWAYS) Excel based program that is interlinked to other publicly available open sources such as MEPDG, PaLATE, Realcost, and TNM-LookUp. Developed by RMRC/University of Wisconsin Prepared by: Bora Cetin hways/

SITES (THE SUSTAINABLE INITIATIVE) A rating system and certification program designed to distinguish sustainable landscapes, measure their performance, and elevate their value. Administered by Green Business Certification Inc. (GBCI) Certification program is geared towards improving: reduction of water demand filtering and reducing storm water runoff providing wildlife habitat reducing energy consumption improving air quality improving human health increasing outdoor recreation opportunities Prepared by: Tugce Baser http://www.sustainablesites .org/

STAR (SUSTAINABILITY TOOLS FOR ASSESSING AND RATING COMMUNITIES) A rating system and certification program for local governments to assess their communities progress on sustainability and economic, environmental, and social measures. Managed by a nonprofit organization and is available for free. Certification program is based on a rating system with total of 750 points in the following categories: climate and energy economy and jobs education, arts, and community

equity and empowerment health and safety natural systems built environment Prepared by: Arvin Farid http://www.starcommunities.o

rg/ SPEAR (SUSTAINABLE PROJECT APPRAISAL ROUTINE) A sustainability decision-making tool based on 23 different indicators. Developed by ARUP a consulting firm and may be purchased. Prepared by: Mina Lee pear BREEAM (BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHOD) Environmental assessment method for new and existing buildings, which awards a sustainability rating based on a series of credit points

Rating system includes: Assessment categories include: management health and wellbeing energy transport water materials waste land use and ecology pollution innovation Prepared by: Mina Lee d=3535

QUANTITATIVE SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT TOOLS Quantify triple bottom line (environmental, economic and social) impacts during life-cycle of the project Indicators and metrics for environmental impacts are well defined but not for economic and social impacts Example tools to assess environmental sustainability: DFI Carbon Calculator ISO 14040 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) DFI CARBON CALCULATOR Excel tool to calculate the CO2 emissions of foundation and geotechnical works. Includes the following Emission Factor Databases:

Bilan Carbone v7, Defra 2012, coInvent v2.2, EcoTransit, ICE V2, IEA 2012, sustainable concrete Tool allows to: evaluate the carbon footprint of your designs compare the carbon footprint of alternative designs compare pre-project projections of carbon emissions with post-project measurements Prepared by: Krishna Reddy LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) In addition to carbon footprint (global warming), LCA provides a quantified assessment of various other environmental impacts (e.g.,

acidification, eutrophication, carcinogens, etc.) as well as energy consumption during the entire life-cycle of a project LCA is useful to: Identify main contributors to environmental impacts and allow making improvements Assess alternate designs and select the most sustainable design Prepared by: Krishna Reddy LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSEMENT METHODOLOGY ISO LCA guidance documents: ISO 14040: Principles and framework ISO 14044: Requirements and guidelines ISO 14040 definition of LCA: LCA is the compilation and evaluation of the

inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. Prepared by: Krishna Reddy SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL PROJECTS AND CASE STUDIES Learning objectives of this module: To demonstrate the use of sustainability assessment tools in geotechnical projects SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL PROJECTS

Limited case studies are reported on the use of sustainability assessment tools for geotechnical projects The objective of this module is to present some geotechnical examples/case studies where sustainability assessment was practiced Examples/case studies: Control Piles in Mexico City LCA of Pile Foundations Landfill Cover Systems Ground Improvement Methods CONTROL PILES IN MEXICO CITY Project objective: to support buildings and manage land subsidence Problem: pile

foundations groundwater decline and Solution: Use of control pile to adjust continuously to keep Floor 0 at ground level or maintain utility connections and entry ways Sustainability assessment was conducted using EnVision rating system Prepared by: Mina Lee (project detail and photographs courtesy of Jeffrey Keaton) Angel Reforma

Pemex HQ, B-2, 1968 ENVISION CHECKLIST Prepared by: Mina Lee (project detail courtesy of Jeffrey Keaton) LCA OF PILE FOUNDATIONS

Drilled shafts and driven piles homogeneous sand and clay profiles in Working superstructure loads: 1000 kN, 2000 kN, 5000 kN Fixed pile length of 12 m Which pile is more sustainable? Prepared by: Mina Lee Misra (2010) LCA RESULTS

% consumption of energy for piles in sand % consumption of energy for piles in clay Environment al impacts of piles in sand Environment al impacts of piles in clay

Prepared by: Mina Lee LCA OF LAND FILL COVERS Subtitle D Cover Prepared by: Krishna Reddy Biocover Sadasivam and Reddy (2014) LCA RESULTS Eco-Indicator 99(E) V2.08 method (European standards for normalization of impact values) Prepared by: Krishna Reddy INTEGRATED PIPELINE PROJECT Design and installation of a long pipeline

(exceeding 225 km) that collects and transfers water from lakes such as Richland Chambers, Cedar Creek and Lake Palestine to the DFW metroplex Enormous amounts of soil to be excavated, fill material to be imported for bedding and backfilling of the pipeline Backfill PIPE Haunch Bedding Subgrade Check reusability of in-situ material to

reduce environmental impacts Prepared by: Mina Lee and Krishna Reddy and socio-economic Chittoori et al. (2012) NATIVE SOIL TREATMENT AS CLSM Considered using native clays as CLSM Material Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) Flowable Self Leveling Solidifies to provide good support

Conventional CLSM Water Cement/Fly Ash Fine Aggregate Other air entraining agents/Set accelerators Prepared by: Mina Lee and Krishna Reddy CLSM LAB/FIELD STUDY Overall it was observed that it is possible to prepare CLSM mixes using native CH material 10% cement appears to be ideal for this case Combinations of binders did not prove to be effective in this case Combinations of soil types would reduce the required water content by 20% and the setting time by 2 hours CLSM Field Demonstrated

Prepared by: Mina Lee and Krishna Reddy SUSTAINABILITY CONSIDERATIONS Prepared by: Mina Lee and Krishna Reddy Soil reuse effects on sustainability factors SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT Assumptions: 100 ft. of pipeline, west of alignment was considered Nearest landfill located at Stephenville, Texas 60 miles from project site

Quarry located at North Richland Hills, Texas 25 miles from project site Nearest lime plant in Cleburne, Texas 40 miles from project site Prepared by: Mina Lee and Krishna Reddy CARBON FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS USING NATIVE MATERIAL (W/O TREATMENT) AS BEDDING AND EMBEDMENT Total CO2 emissions for using excavated material without treatment, kg 1,515* USING IMPORTED MATERIAL AS BEDDING AND EMBEDMENT Total CO2 emissions for using imported material, kg

10,190* USING NATIVE MATERIAL (With TREATMENT) AS BEDDING AND EMBEDMENT Total CO2 emissions for using excavated material without treatment, kg 7,751* *Per 100 ft. of pipe length Prepared by: Mina Lee and Krishna Reddy COST ANALYSIS USING NATIVE MATERIAL (W/O TREATMENT) AS BEDDING AND EMBEDMENT Total costs for using in situ material without treatment $ 1,266* USING IMPORTED MATERIAL AS BEDDING AND EMBEDMENT Total costs for using imported material

$ 8,168* USING NATIVE MATERIAL (With TREATMENT) AS BEDDING AND EMBEDMENT Total costs for using in situ material without treatment $ 1,318* *Per 100 ft. of pipe length Prepared by: Mina Lee and Krishna Reddy LESSONS LEARNED FROM THIS CASE STUDY Considerable potential for reuse of local native materials as CLSM bedding or haunch materials Reutilization of the excavated material improves the sustainability of the project Major reductions of carbon emissions

More economical to use native materials with treatments than imported material Several Millions of dollars of cost savings Prepared by: Krishna Reddy CLOSING COMMENTS Geotechnical engineers are challenged to do right project in do it right incorporating sustainability Resiliency should be addressed in light of extreme hazards associated with global climate change Sustainability assessment tools can be used to assess or optimize sustainability in geotechnical engineering Examples/case studies demonstrate how sustainability can be

incorporated in geotechnical designs Prepared by: Krishna Reddy ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Funding provided by the Technical Coordinating Council (TCC) of ASCE-Geo-Institute Contributions (see footnotes of each slide for preparers name): Mina Lee Preparing contents & formatting and editing presentation slides Krishna Reddy

Preparing contents & reviewing and editing presentation slides Bora Cetin Preparing contents & reviewing presentation slides Arvin Farid Preparing contents & reviewing and editing presentation slides Tugce Baser Preparing contents & reviewing presentation slides Burak Tanyu

Preparing contents & reviewing presentation slides Dipanjan Basu Reviewing presentation slides Reviewed by: Members of Sustainability in Geotechnical Engineering Committee TCC REFERENCES Basu, D., Misra, A., and Puppala, A. (2015). Sustainability and geotechnical engineering: perspectives and review. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52(1), 96-113. Bocchini, P., Frangopol, D.M., Ummenhofer, T. and Zinke, T. (2014). Resilience and sustainability of civil infrastructure: toward

a unified approach., Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 20 (2), 1-16. Chittoori, B., Puppala, A., Reddy, R., and Marshall, D. (2012). Sustainable reutilization of excavated trench material. Geotechnical Special Publication 225, Proc. Of the Geo-Congress 2012, ASCE, Oakland, CA. Gagnon, L., Leduc, R., and Savard, L. (2008). Sustainable development in engineering: a review of principles and definition of a conceptual framework. Groupe de Recherche en conomie et Dveloppement International Working Paper, 08-18. Misra A. (2010). A Multicriteria based quantitative framework for assessing sustainability of pile foundations. Masters Theses. 27. Misra, A. and Basu, D. (2011). Sustainability in geotechnical engineering Internal Geotechnical Report 2011-2. Technical Reports. 1. Sadasivam, B.Y., and Reddy, K.R. (2014). Sustainability assessment of Subtitle D cover versus biocover for methane oxidation at municipal solid waste landfills. Geotechnical Special Publication 234, Proc. of the Geo-Congress 2014, ASCE, Reston, VA.

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