Sutherland & Cressy (1960) - University of Minnesota Duluth
Sutherland & Cressy (1960) Criminology is the scientific approach to: a. the study of criminal behavior b. societys reaction to law violations and violators Criminology vs. Criminal Justice Criminal Justice The Study of Agencies Related to the Control of Crime
Criminology The study of crime trends, nature of crime, theories of crime Note: This is a Criminology text with a little bit of Criminal Justice at the end Criminology vs. Deviance Criminology Crime Focuses on Crimes = violation of criminal law Deviance
Focuses on Violations of Societal Norms These may or may not also be law violations Criminology as a Discipline Until recently, (1970s) there was no such thing as a degree in criminology or criminal justice. 1900s-1970s: Degree in sociology or urban studies (emphasis on crime). Implication? Sociology dominates. See your text book (fear/mistrust of individual trait explanations)
A Sociological CriminologyThe Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Good: Focus on social structure horizontal and vertical), healthy skepticism (debunking motif) Bad: Ignore/ridicule outside disciplines (psych/bio) and their focus on individual differences The Irony? Psychologists and biologists believe that social forces are as or more important than individual differences Ugly: When debunking turns to
knowledge destruction A Crude History of Criminology Middle Ages Superstition, Classical School (1750s-1900) Utilitarian Free Positive religion, and fear
philosophy (Becarria) Will, Hedonistic Calculus School (1900-present) Bio/psych determinism (1900-1920s) Lombrosos Ativism Intelligence, Personality Crude HistoryPart II Sociological Durkheim, Political theory (1920s-Present)
Merton and the Chicago School philosophy (1960s-early 1970s) Marx Neo-classical (Late 1970s-1990s) Currently? Developmental Theory (interdisciplinary) Differing views on the law and criminal justice system Consensus View
Law defines crime; Agreement exists on outlawed behavior Laws apply to all citizens equally Conflict view Law is a tool of the ruling class (to control the underclass) Crime is a politically defined concept Implications? Research in Criminology Survey
Research Most common Cross-sectional versus longitudinal Experimental Research Official and Aggregate Data Research Ideology in Criminology and Criminal Justice Walter Miller Ideology is the permanent hidden agenda of
Criminal Justice What is Ideology? Liberal/Progressive Ideology Conservative Ideology Radical Ideology Implications of Ideology for Crime and Justice Conservatives School tend to fit with Classical Neo-Classical = deterrence, incapacitation
Liberal/Progressive fit with positive school Root causes of crime only fixed by social change Rehabilitation may be possible Radical = Marxist/conflict theory Distinguishing Ideology from Fact Most research projects, papers, and books are influenced by ideology Some are driven almost entirely by ideology
The Bell Curve Familiarity with ideology, research methods and statistics will help you sift ideology from empirical fact
(20) In direct contrast, Bob Ewell is said to have "never done an honest day's work in his life." Burris, his son, attends school only on "the first day every year and then leave[s]". (29) The Ewells also expect to...
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Composite tank with concrete masonry walls. No. 1 Tank Design Revisions. Review initial designs. Compare designs to existing structure in Panama. Monitor construction of structural components while on site to ensure proper installation. No. 1 . tank, section . A-A....
Latin corpus: 'body' (plural corpora) Put simply: a corpus is a 'body' of text. What is Corpus Linguistics? Corpus linguistics is the study of language using a corpus or corpora Early Corpus Linguistics. Franz Boas. Leonard Bloomfield.
Apply to mating strategies If sexual selection is important in effecting human reproductive behaviour, we should expect that the same physical characteristics are attractive to all people as they signal fertility.
MARPOL annex V Regulation 10.1 also requires every ship of 12 metres in length or over and every fixed or floating platform to display placards notifying passengers and crew of the disposal requirements of the Annex.
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