Sutherland & Cressy (1960) - University of Minnesota Duluth

Sutherland & Cressy (1960) - University of Minnesota Duluth

Sutherland & Cressy (1960) Criminology is the scientific approach to: a. the study of criminal behavior b. societys reaction to law violations and violators Criminology vs. Criminal Justice Criminal Justice The Study of Agencies Related to the Control of Crime

Criminology The study of crime trends, nature of crime, theories of crime Note: This is a Criminology text with a little bit of Criminal Justice at the end Criminology vs. Deviance Criminology Crime Focuses on Crimes = violation of criminal law Deviance

Focuses on Violations of Societal Norms These may or may not also be law violations Criminology as a Discipline Until recently, (1970s) there was no such thing as a degree in criminology or criminal justice. 1900s-1970s: Degree in sociology or urban studies (emphasis on crime). Implication? Sociology dominates. See your text book (fear/mistrust of individual trait explanations)

A Sociological CriminologyThe Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Good: Focus on social structure horizontal and vertical), healthy skepticism (debunking motif) Bad: Ignore/ridicule outside disciplines (psych/bio) and their focus on individual differences The Irony? Psychologists and biologists believe that social forces are as or more important than individual differences Ugly: When debunking turns to

knowledge destruction A Crude History of Criminology Middle Ages Superstition, Classical School (1750s-1900) Utilitarian Free Positive religion, and fear

philosophy (Becarria) Will, Hedonistic Calculus School (1900-present) Bio/psych determinism (1900-1920s) Lombrosos Ativism Intelligence, Personality Crude HistoryPart II Sociological Durkheim, Political theory (1920s-Present)

Merton and the Chicago School philosophy (1960s-early 1970s) Marx Neo-classical (Late 1970s-1990s) Currently? Developmental Theory (interdisciplinary) Differing views on the law and criminal justice system Consensus View

Law defines crime; Agreement exists on outlawed behavior Laws apply to all citizens equally Conflict view Law is a tool of the ruling class (to control the underclass) Crime is a politically defined concept Implications? Research in Criminology Survey

Research Most common Cross-sectional versus longitudinal Experimental Research Official and Aggregate Data Research Ideology in Criminology and Criminal Justice Walter Miller Ideology is the permanent hidden agenda of

Criminal Justice What is Ideology? Liberal/Progressive Ideology Conservative Ideology Radical Ideology Implications of Ideology for Crime and Justice Conservatives School tend to fit with Classical Neo-Classical = deterrence, incapacitation

Liberal/Progressive fit with positive school Root causes of crime only fixed by social change Rehabilitation may be possible Radical = Marxist/conflict theory Distinguishing Ideology from Fact Most research projects, papers, and books are influenced by ideology Some are driven almost entirely by ideology

The Bell Curve Familiarity with ideology, research methods and statistics will help you sift ideology from empirical fact

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