SWE 3313 Requirements Objectives Eliciting requirements from the customers Modeling requirements Reviewing requirements to ensure their quality Documenting requirements for use by the design and test teams 1-2
The Requirements Process A requirement is an expression of desired behavior A requirement deals with objects or entities the state they can be in functions that are performed to change states or object characteristics Requirements focus on the customer needs, not on the solution or implementation designate what behavior, without saying how that behavior will be realized 1-3
Process for Capturing Requirements Performed by the req. analyst or system analyst The final outcome is a Software Requirements Specification (SRS) document 1-4 Requirements Elicitation Customers do not always understand what their needs and problems are It is important to discuss the requirements with everyone who has a stake in the system Come up with agreement on what the requirements are
If we can not agree on what the requirements are, then the project is doomed to fail 1-5 Requirements Elicitation: Stakeholders Clients: pay for the software to be developed Customers: buy the software after it is developed Users: use the system
Domain experts: familiar with the problem that the software must automate Market Researchers: conduct surveys to determine future trends and potential customers Lawyers or auditors: familiar with government, safety, or legal requirements Software engineers or other technology experts 1-6 Types of Requirements Functional requirement Describes required behavior in terms of required activities Quality requirement or non-functional requirement
Describes some quality characteristic that the software must posses Design constraint A design decision such as choice of platform or interface components Process constraint A restriction on the techniques or resources that can be used to build the system 1-7 Making Requirements Testable Fit criteria form objective standards for judging
whether a proposed solution satisfies the requirements It is easy to set fit criteria for quantifiable requirements It is hard for subjective quality requirements Three ways to help make requirements testable Specify a quantitative description for each adverb and adjective Replace pronouns with specific names of entities Make sure that every noun is defined in exactly one place in the requirements documents 1-8 Resolving Conflicts
Different stakeholder has different set of requirements potential conflicting ideas Need to prioritize requirements Prioritization might separate requirements into three categories essential: absolutely must be met desirable: highly desirable but not necessary optional: possible but could be eliminated 1-9 Two Kinds of Requirements Documents Requirements definition: a complete listing of
everything the customer wants to achieve Describing the entities in the environment where the system will be installed Requirements specification: restates the requirements as a specification of how the proposed system shall behave 1-10 Characteristics of Requirements
1-11 Project Initiation Key information to gather at project initiation: Purpose and Description of project. List of key stakeholders. Who is a stakeholder? Important Project Dates 1-12
Project Initiation Setting goals: Goal setting is the most critical step in project initiation. Goals set here, usually by the customer, will influence the requirements and design that follow. Goals need due dates S.M.A.R.T. Goals:
Equipment and software needs Technical skills and knowledge 1-14 Simple Requirements: User story What is a user story? 1-15 Writing User Stories
User Stories: are very slim and high-level requirements artifacts. are small - much smaller than other requirement artifacts such as use cases or usage scenarios. Usually no more than three to five sentences in length. Some say that a user story should be able to fit on an index card. Should be written in non-technical language that a nonengineer can understand. Should avoid locking-in to any technology specifics. e.g. language, server, database type, device type, etc. 1-16
Writing User Stories Sample User Stories for a College Website System Students can purchase semester parking passes online and shall be able to pay for their passes via credit card or PayPal. The student should receive a receipt by email as well as a printed receipt and/or a temporary parking pass printout for their dashboard. Students should be able to view registration information, including their current semester schedule, their unofficial transcript. Students should also be able to order official transcripts, which they can pay for via credit card or PayPal. They should receive an email and printed receipt.
1-17 Writing User Stories There are several important considerations to keep in mind when writing user stories: Stakeholders write or strongly influence user stories, or at least narrate them to the engineers who record them. Project stakeholders write the user stories, not the developers! User stories are simple enough that people can learn to write them in a few minutes. Therefore, it makes sense that domain experts (the
stakeholders) write them. 1-18 Writing User Stories Handy templates for user stories: As a user, I want to is a good template to begin with. As a ______ I want to _______ so that _______ is also good. Given [context] and [some more context] when [event] then [outcome] and [another outcome] 1-19
Writing User Stories Each User Story should have: A unique identifier An estimated cost A Priority 1-20 Writing User Stories
Each User Story should have: A unique identifier This not only allows east reference to user stories by number, but because these user stories are a primitive form of requirement, it allows limited requirements traceability throughout the development lifecycle. 1-21 Writing User Stories Unique Identifier. A dotted numbering system allows large, general user stories can then be decomposed easily:
1. Students can access the registration and records systems. 1.1 Students can enroll in courses. 1.2 Students can check their grades and view their transcript. 1.2.1 Students can order an official transcript 1-22 Writing User Stories Each User Story should have: An estimated cost This cost may be in terms of size (of code), time, or money Estimated Cost If you dont know specifics in terms of time, money, or size, one way to
estimate is to assign points to each story. The points are relative indication of how long it will take to implement a articular user story compared to another. The points can later be user to help determine specific time/cost estimates and to formulate your Management Plan. For example, User Story 1 may be twice as difficult as Story 2, so it would get 2 points to the latters 1 point. If it is later determined that it takes on average 2.5 hours per point, then User Story 1 would take 5 hours to implement. 1-23 Writing User Stories Each User Story should have: A Priority Requirements are prioritized by your project
stakeholders and NOT the developers. These priorities are then used to add each user story to the project tasking in the appropriate order. It is common to use a scale of 1 to 10 with 1 being the highest priority, but other prioritization approached are possible. e.g. High / Medium / Low. 1-24 INVEST criteria for User Stories A well-written user story follows the INVEST model Independent - One user story should be independent of another. Dependencies between stories make planning,
prioritization, and estimation more difficult. Can be reduced by combining stories or rewriting differently. Negotiable - A user story is negotiable - just a short description which does not include details. Details are worked out later as the team discusses each story. A story with too much detail actually limits conversation. Valuable - Each story has to be of value to the customer (which is why the customer should write them). Once a customer realizes that a user story is not a contract and is negotiable, they are more comfortable. 1-25 INVEST criteria for User Stories Estimable - Developers need to be able to estimate (at a ballpark even)
a user story to allow prioritization and planning of the story. Problems that can keep developers from estimating a story are: lack of domain knowledge (in which case there is a need for more conversation with the customer); or if the story is too big (in which case the story needs to be broken down into smaller stories). Small - A good story should be small in effort, typically representing no more, than 2-3 person weeks of effort. A story which is larger than that is more likely to have errors associated with scoping and estimation. Testable - A story needs to be testable for the verification and validation of the product to take place. We cant develop what we cannot test. If you can't test it then you will never know when you are done. An example of non-testable story: "software should be easy to use 1-26
Lets write some user stories Scenario 1: ATM Machine Gasoline Pump Scenario 2: 1-27 User Stories In summary, a user story must: Have a unique identifier, priority, and estimated cost. Express desired outcomes from the point of
view of the user. Be written in clear, non-technical terms and avoid specifics of implementation. 1-28 User Stories User Stories are the BEGINNING, not the end of the requirements gathering process. Writing user stories does NOT absolve you from other forms of requirements gathering and documentation! More formal methods, such as use cases, UML diagrams, or detailed requirements documents
may need to be written You will likely need to generate use cases in your development cycle this semester 1-29
phet.colorado.edu. Introduction to Electrical circuits. Resistors in Series and Parallel Circuits . Combo Circuit Lab. Introduction to Electrical circuits . Learning Goals: Students will be able to. Discuss basic electricity relationships.
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