ระบบหน่วยและมาตรฐานของการวัด (System of Units & Standard of ...

ระบบหน่วยและมาตรฐานของการวัด (System of Units & Standard of ...

f Units & Standard of Meas 1. 3. 4. (Unit)

(Unit) () (times)) (Fundamental Unit)

- (mechanics),primary 3) - (thermal, 1)

- (electrical, 1) auxiliary - (Illumination, 1) 1) - (chemical,

(cm, () m) () (g, kg)

(s)) () SI (Derived Unit) (Phys)ical

(Dim (A))= x = mxm = m2 (Length) L (Mas)s))

M (Time) T

L2 L3 LMT 2 kg . m /

s ( ) T -2 ML 2

(System of Uni 2 (Imperial or Britis)h Sys)tem) (Metric Sys)tem)

pound, ounces), dram grai inch, foot, yard mile Pound Troy Pound A)voirdupois) Comparison of Imperial and U.S. volume measures 1 U.S. fluid ounce

= 29.573 529 562 5 mililitres 1.041 Imperial fluid ounces = 28.413 062 5 mililitres 0.961 U.S. fluid ounce = 3.785 411 784 litres

0.833 Imperial gallon 1 Imperial gallon = 4.546 09 litres 1.201 liquid U.S. gallons 1 dry U.S. gallon = 4.404 842 803 2 litres

0.968 Imperial gallon 1 Imperial gallon = 4.546 09 litres 1.032 dry U.S. gallons 1 Imperial fluid ounce 1 liquid U.S. gallon

10 3 1. Univers)al Sys)tem of Weights) & Meas)ures) Manmade Reference Standard

Permanent 2. Meas)ure Prefix - CGS Electros)tatic

- CGS Electromagnetic - TMS - MKS, MKSA) - Gaus)s)ian - Heavis)ide Lorentz CGS (Centimeter, Gram, Second) MKSA) (Mete, Kilogram, Second, A)mp

1 5,000 m2 ft2 1 ft = 30.48 = 0.3048 cm m

1 ft A 5000 0.3048 m 53,820 ft 2 2

(Electric and Mag Volt, A)mpere, Ohm () - (L) CGS Centimeter (C) - (M)

- (T) Gram (G) Second (S) CGS - CGS electrostatic system - CGS electromagnetic system S electrostatic system

(Q) Coulombs) Law) Q1Q2 F k 2 r Q1Q2 r2

F (, dy Q 1,Q2 r Permittivity Coulombs law 1

1 permittivity (Free Space) 1

permittivity (s)pec r 0 0 r

4 ( , ) Q QQ F 1 2 r2

LM Q2 2 2 T 0L 01 2 M 1 2 L3 2 Q T

- CGS (L) - (M) - (T) Centimeter, cm (C) Gram, g (G) Second, s) (S)

Q Q cm3/ 2 g 1/ 2 s 1 Statcoulomb Q I t

I Statcoulomp sec cm3/ 2 g 1/ 2 s 2 Statampere

electromagnetic system magnetic poles)trength Coulombs) Law) m1m2 F k 2 r m1m2

2 r F 2 m1, m2 magnetic poles)trang

r permeability Free s)pace 1 cm

permeability 1 permeability (s)pe r 0 0 r

4 ( , ) m F

m1m2 r 2 LM m 2 2 T 0 L 01 2 M 1 2 L3 2 m

T - CGS (L) - (M) - (T) Centimeter, cm (C) Gram, g (G)

Second, s) (S) m m cm3/ 2 g 1/ 2 s 1

(Practical Unit) - CGS electromagnetic (International Unit) - (International Unit)

1 0.001118 / (Absalute Unit)

1 . 1948 MKS (practical)

Permeability 10-7 ( = 1) SI EC A)mpere - 1954 SI MKSA)

SI SI (Standard)

(Measurement Sta

1 SI ( 90% - 10%)

International (Calibration)

Traceability Sys)tem

4 (International Standard) , (Primary Standard , (Secondary Stan (Working Standard)

(International Standard) International Bureau of Weights) and Meas)ures), Paris)

, (Primary Standard) , (Secondary Standar

(Working Standard)

(Traceabilit

(kg) ( 90% 10%)

International Bureau of Weights) and Meas)ures) Serves), France (m) 1/299,792,458

National Bureau of S = 1 / SI

(s)) 9,192,631,770 caes)ium-133 atom 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. SI A)mpere lectromagnetic 0 I 2l F ( F 2 d

= 2 x 10-7 dM 12 F G I dx 2

I G dM 12 dx x 0 .

Mutual Inductance x 0 nternational A)mpere 1 0.001118 /

jos)ephs)on e - h - Plan Jos)ephs)on

f f V KJ

h f 2e KJ 1 483,597.9 0.2 GHz/V (

1990) (NPL) - 1.01865 V Cadmium Cell : emf of 1.0193, accuracy

(laboratory w)orking) (DC Trans)fer Stan (NBS, NPL) ( 85 %, 11 %,

(Primary Standard) (Thomps)on 2 pF

dc commutated bridge Meas)uring Cap Standard Capacitor - -

orking Standard Capacitor Silver-mica (Primary Standard) - NIST (NBS, U.S.A).) -

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