words are signs signifier = form = morphology (phonology) signified = meaning = semantics (pragmatics) combination of words = sentence structure =
syntax Morphology: language types analytic languages signal grammatical relationships by word position in the
sentence (= word order) synthetic languages signal grammatical relationships by the shape of the words (=inflectional endings) 1500 years ago, English was much more synthetic than it is today. It has changed into
a more analytic language Morphology definition: morphology studies the smallest meaningful units, called 'morphemes' morpheme phoneme (pit vs. bit)
morpheme word (blueberry, autobus) morpheme syllable (mo-ther) types of morphemes: a) free morphemes: may occur on their own and are used freely according to the
rules of sentence structure, for example 'boy', 'tree', 'church', 'go', 'leave', 'love'. b) bound morphemes (affixes): cannot usually stand alone but are attached to a free morpheme (= 'base'), e.g 're-', '-ed', 's'.
morphemes are ideal abstract units, whereas the corresponding morphs can show some variation morphs are concrete manifestations of a morphome allomorphs are variations of morphemes
/z/ in "dogs, beds" /s/ in "cats" /iz/ in "garages" overview of the discipline
Morphology Inflection Word-Formation Derivation
Compounding types of inflection a) declension of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns b) conjugation of verbs.
derivational morphemes (affixes) are used for word formation Word formation word formation processes a) derivation
definition: a combination of a free and bound morpheme(s) - by far the most common word formation process in the production of new words examples of derivation:
derivation: exceptions Cranberry morph(eme)s are bound morphemes which occur in only one derivation (or compound) but nowhere else: e.g. cranberry, inane, umpteen
similar words (strawberry, inactive, thirteen) suggest that they are indeed morphemes cranberry morphs are relics of words which have died out in other uses b) compounding
definition: a combination two or more free morphemes German is notorious for long words (e.g. Weihnachtsbaumschmuckvertriebsorganis ationshandbuchverkufer), compounds in English do not usually exceed two units
examples of compounding: Endocentric compounds: the compound is an instance of the thing denoted by the last constituent (e.g. houseboat is a type of
boat, boathouse is a type of house; a person who is seasick is sick) Exocentric compounds: the compound does not refer to an entity denoted by either constituent (a paleface is not a type of face, but a person who has a pale face)
examples of exocentric compounds: paleface, redskin, redneck, skinhead, bigfoot, pickpocket Copulative compounds: both constituents refer to the entity denoted by the whole
compound. An owner-builder is both an owner of a house and its builder. e.g. singer-songwriter, bittersweet, deafmute compounds need to be defined on several linguistic levels
morphology (free morphemes) phonology (stress on the first element) semantics (unity) minor word formation processes c) coinage: means the invention of totally
new terms the most typical cases are invented trade names for a companys product which become general terms for any version of that product (without initial capital letters) e.g. 'xerox', 'kleenex' or 'aspirin'
d) conversion: involves a change in the function of a word, e.g. when a noun comes to be used as a verb (without any reduction or change) E.g. to paper a wall (paper) or a must
(from the verb must') e) acronymy: acronyms are formed from
the initial letters of a set of other words acronyms are pronounced as single words, e.g. 'NATO', 'RADAR', 'LASER' (unlike in the case of 'CD', which is an initialism)
f) backformation: means a special type of reduction process: a word of one type (usually a noun) is reduced to form another word of a different type (usually a verb) E.g. donate (from donation), babysit
(from babysitter) and televise (from television) g) blending: means a combination of two separate forms to produce a single new term. Blending usually involves taking the
beginning of one word and joining it to the end of the other word E.g. smog, brunch and modem h) clipping: means that a word of more than one syllable (facsimile) is reduced to
a shorter form E.g. bus, ad and bra i) borrowing: refers to the taking over of words from other languages English has adopted a great number of
loan-words throughout its history E.g. yogurt (Turkish) and alcohol (Arabic)
Wasps, bees, ants: >130,000 In the Brazilian Amazon rain forest, the dry weight of all the ants is approximately four times that of all the land vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians) combined.
Habitat: Breeding habitat: Shallow wetlands within or near forested habitat. Summer habitat: Closely associated with woodland and forest habitats. Often found in residential areas where it may be seen on windows feeding on insects attracted to lights. Winter habitat: Terrestrial.Body...
Times New Roman Arial Wingdings Default Design MS Organization Chart 2.0 Development of Sediment Quality Objectives for California Bays and Estuaries Project Organization Direct Effects Database Database Contents Stations Having Multiple Lines of Evidence Stations With Combinations of Direct Effects...
Storia delle relazioni internazionali 2013-2014 Il corso Analisi dei sistemi internazionali e della politica internazionale nel Novecento, dalla Grande Guerra al crollo dell'Unione Sovietica e alla dissoluzione della Jugoslavia Temi principali: Introduzione: i sistemi diplomatici del passato Sistema di Versailles...
The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde - R.L. Stevenson, 1887. The Picture of Dorian Gray, Oscar Wilde, 1890. Dracula - Bram Stoker, 1897. Rebecca - Du Maurier, 1931. The Woman in Black - Susan Hill, 1983. The...
GCSE in Electronic Products . Is it the option for you? What is Electronic Engineering? Electronics is an exciting, creative and interesting subject to study which involves: Designing Electronic Products through drawing, modelling and testing.
What effect does tuning on a phosphor have on the neutron ball? Is the neutron ball activated? Can we quantify the activation? How long is the neutron ball activated? Phosphor testing. 770 pA on FC02. 1 min irradiation. 88 ....
TEXTURE is the element of art that refers to the way things feel, or look as if the might feel if touched. Texture in Art works… In painting, some works have an overall smooth surface in which even the marks...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!