Taxonomy The science of naming organisms. Aristotle Plant or animal? If an animal, does it Fly Swim
Crawl Simple classifications Used common names Carolus Linnaeus Described organisms with two word names, instead of polynomials
Developed binomial nomenclature First word = genus name Second word = species name Why binomial nomenclature? Much easier than a 10+ word name under old polynomial system Same name no matter where you go Less confusion
Binomial = SCIENTIFIC NAME Scientific Names You Need to Know Homo sapiens Canis lupus Felis domesticus Pan pan
Taxonomic hierarchy Names organisms and their relationships from very broad to very specific All organisms classified in a hierarchy Kingdom
(broadest) Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species (most specific)
Notes assignment: Look up the classification for humans for all seven hierarchies and write them below. What is a species anyway? Biological species concept
A group of actually or potentially breeding natural groups that are reproductively isolated from other groups. Ernst Mayr, 1924 BSCs problems Hybrids
Sterile offspring of two different species Asexual organisms How many are out there? Scientists currently estimate that There are 10 million species worldwide Over 5 million live in the tropics
Most unnamed species are small or microscopic Why is taxonomy useful? Helps prevent confusion among scientists Helps to show how organisms are related Can be used to reconstruct
phylogenies evolutionary histories of an organism or group A note on cladograms Graph showing when different groups diverged from a common ancestral line Points where they diverge are often noted with a feature that was different between ancestral group and a new
feature in the group that split off. Bird Cladogram The 6 kingdoms Prokaryotes Monera) (Used to be 1 kingdom,
Archaebacteria Eubacteria Eukaryotes Fungi Protista Animal Plantae Overview of the 6 kingdoms Archaebacteria
Unicellular Live in extreme environments Prokaryotic Eubacteria Unicellular Prokaryotic Common bacteria Overview of the 6 kingdoms
Protista Eukaryotic Unicellular or colonial Lots of different life styles Fungi Cell walls made of chitin Eukaryotic Multicellular External heterotrophs
Overview of the 6 kingdoms Plantae Eukaryotic & Multicellular Cell walls made of cellulose Autotrophic Animalia Eukaryotic & Multicellular No cell walls
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