Taxonomy - JCCHS O'Reilly

Taxonomy - JCCHS O'Reilly

Key questions 1. How do scientists classify animals? 2. What is binomial nomenclature?

3. What are cladograms? 4. How do I use a dichotomous key? I. Taxonomy: the study of classifying organisms A. Taxonomists are scientist who study

classifying B. Taxon (taxa-plural) is a category into which related organism are placed Carolus Linnaes: father of the

modern day naming system II. Reasons to Classify: A. Shows evolutionary relationships B. Accurately and uniformly names

organisms C. Prevents misnomers such as starfish and jellyfish that arent really fish D. Uses the same

language (Latin) for all names E. Prevents duplicated names because all names must be approved by International Naming Congresses

Australian Possum American Possum IV. Binomial Nomenclature A. The modern system of

naming, binomial nomenclature, uses a two word name (Genus and Species) B. Scientific names should be italicized in print or underlined when writing

C. Always capitalize the genus name, but write the species in lower case (ex: Homo sapiens) D. The genus name may be abbreviated, but not

the species (ex: H. sapiens) V. Taxonomic Categories

Kingdom Phylum Class

Order Family Genus Species Cladograms show how organisms are related based on shared characteristics

1. ______ Wings 2. ______ 6 Legs 3. ______ Segmented Body 4. ______ Double set of wings 5. ______ Jumping Legs 6. ______ Crushing mouthparts

7. ______ Legs 8. ______ Curly Antennae VII. Dichotomous Key A. A tool used to identify organisms B. A series of pared statements that describe physical characteristics of different organisms.

Example: Classify: the following KINGDOMS OF LIFE EUBACTERIA

DOMAIN = Bacteria Eu = True meaning True Bacteria Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes or Both? EUBACTERIA Cell Structures

EUBACTERIA # of Cells? Unicellular or Multicellular? EUBACTERIA Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph, Heterotroph, or Both? EUBACTERIA

Streptococcus E. Coli ARCHAEBACTERIA Domain = Archaea Prokaryote or

Eukaryote? ARCHAEBACTERIA Cell Structure ARCHAEBACTERIA Number of Cells: Unicellular or Multicellular or Both?

ARCHAEBACTERIA Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph, Heterotroph, or Both? ARCHAEBACTERIA Examples: Live in EXTREME Conditions!

PROTISTA DOMAIN = Eukarya Prokaryote or Eukaryote? PROTISTA

Cell Structures Cell walls are made of? Some have Chloroplasts PROTISTA

Number of Cells: Unicellular or Multicellular or Both? PROTISTA Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or Heterotroph or Both?

PROTISTA Examples: Slime Molds Paramecium

Amoeba Giant Kelp FUNGI DOMAIN = Eukarya Prokaryote or Eukaryote?

FUNGI Cell Structures: Cell walls made of? FUNGI Number of Cells: Unicellular or

Multicellular or Both? YEAST FUNGI Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph, Heterotroph, or Both? th

t a ok o L t: Hin s! t

roo e FUNGI Examples:

YEAST MUSHROOMS PLANTAE DOMAIN = Eukarya Eukaryote or

Prokaryote? PLANTAE Cell Structures Cell walls made of? __________

Performs Photosynthesis PLANTAE Number of Cells: Multicellular, Unicellular, or Both? PLANTAE

Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph, Heterotroph or Both? Examples Examples:

Mosses Ferns Flowering Plants

ANIMALIA DOMAIN = Eukarya Prokaryote or Eukaryote? ANIMALIA Cell Structures:

Cell walls? Chloroplasts? ANIMALIA Number of Cells: Unicellular or Multicellular?

ANIMALIA Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or Heterotroph? ANIMALIA Examples:

Insects Sponges Mammals Fishes

Worms VIRUSES iru s

Flu V Ba c te

rio p ha ge WHERE ARE THEY CLASSIFIED?!?

Characteristic VIRUSES Structure

Virus Cell Reproduction Genetic Code Growth/Development

DNA or RNA, core, capsid Only in host cell DNA or RNA No

Obtain/Use Energy Response to Environment No No Cell membrane,

cytoplasm Cell division DNA Yes, multicellular organisms Yes Yes

Change over time Yes Yes

REPRODUCTION: 2 Pathways Lytic and Lysogenic Khan academy video Amoeba Sisters (virus) Viruses

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