Teaching English - Narr

Teaching English - Narr

Teaching English 9. Media: a balanced approach Nancy Grimm Michael Meyer Laurenz Volkmann 0. Table of contents 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy 2. Potential 3. Media repertoire 4. Digital technologies: new horizons, new challenges 5. Four examples of media use 5.1 Writing and illustrating a picture book 3.2 Weather reports with fun 3.3 Telling stories in pictures 3.4 Platform-based literature project

6. Recommended reading 7. Acknowledgments Chapter 9: Media a balanced approach 2 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy Kultusministerkonferenz: Media literacy educational mandate of schools a Kulturtechnik like reading, arithmetic, writing based on Hug 2002: 8-9

1. Media pedagogy and media literacy 3 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy which risks do media pose? Over-stimulation attention deficits Disinterest in the actual media contents Anxieties, delusive perceptions of reality, problematic set of norms & values, problematic behavior intellectual development, social relationships Access to media varies social exclusion Manipulation & propaganda issues: public opinion formation, data protection, protection of minors & consumers, safeguarding of personal rights & intellectual property. 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy

4 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy pedagogy of multiliteracies Today we are beginning to notice that the new media are not just mechanical gimmicks for creating worlds of illusion, but new languages with new and unique powers of expression. Marshall McLuhan First, we want to expand the idea and scope of literacy pedagogy to account for the context of our culturally and linguistically diverse and increasingly globalized

societies, for the multifarious cultures that interrelate and the plurality of texts that circulate. Second, we argue that literacy pedagogy now must account for the burgeoning variety of text forms associated with information and multimedia technologies. This includes understanding and competent control of representational forms that are becoming increasingly significant in the overall communications environment []. Cazden et al. 1996: 61 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy 5 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy pedagogy of

multiliteracies Multiliteracies model Cazden et al. 1996: 83 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy 6 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy media literacy objectives Wermke 1997: 145, adapted 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy 7 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy media literacy objectives

Picture frame and caption Size and format (landscape- or portraitformat) Composition (line, shape, color, texture, rhythm, contrast, salience) Genre and motif Point of view/perspective, angle, horizon, and space (visible invisible, seen unseen) Position and size of subject on the page 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy 8 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy

Visual literacy [T]here are no purely visual images; images never appear without words, music, or other sounds. Even in art galleries images appear with labels, and their assumed significance is deeply grounded in art history texts and columns of written critique. The multimodal nature of imagery is even more evident when considering the forms in which imagery mostly occurs today, on television, at the movies, in print, and on computer screens. Words, music, and sound effects anchor the meaning of images. Duncum 2010: 10 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy 9

1. Media pedagogy and media literacy educational objectives of media studies 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy 10 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy There is room for improvement! 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy 11

1. Media pedagogy and media literacy Collect and discuss tasks, activities, projects that could be carried out in the EFL classroom to facilitate media literacy and address the teaching objectives outlined above. 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy 12 1. Media pedagogy and media literacy 1. Established place in TEFL three-layered function a. teaching and learning aids b. communicative tools c. subjects of reflection

2. Facilitating media literacy as interdisciplinary endeavor teachers as agents of change and innovation Why should (English) teachers care about media? 3. Sensible use of media required of competent EFL teachers sound didactic reflection how the choice of a medium contributes to the learning objectives they are aiming at which method as well as activities and tasks they want to use which learning environment and media infrastructure they have at their hands which prior knowledge on the part of students they can work with

1. Media pedagogy and media literacy 13 2. Potential bridge the gap: private life & school creativity negotiation of meaning cooperation Potential for students, teachers, schools bridge the gap: teacher and learner greater variety learning atmosphere

social competences infrastructure & innovation collaboration & action reach larger public: interest & initiative 2. Potential 14 3. Media repertoire Media can be described as those sociotechnical systems and cultural practices of the dissemination and storage of information which serve for the design of communication and interaction (Banse &

Metzner-Szigeth 2012: 235) 3. Media repertoire Quaternary: technical mediation of distribution is indispensable (e.g., online media) Tertiary: use of technology is necessary for production & reception (e.g., record) Secondary: use of technology is necessary for production (e.g., newspaper) Primary: use of technology is not necessary (e. g., theatre) based on Banse & Metzner-Szigeth 2012: 235 15

3. Media repertoire In the case of educational contexts, learners can easily produce different kinds of digital contents (e. g., with their mobile phones, iPods, handheld consoles, etc.), which they can rapidly edit and share with learners and/or teachers through the Internet. Daz Vera 2012: xiv 3. Media repertoire 16 3. Media repertoire Blended learning

3. Media repertoire Wiepcke et al. 2008: 30, adapted 17 3. Media repertoire A balanced approach! [I]t is not media but the uses made of them that can be characterised as traditional or modern. (Evans 2012: 217) [F]undamental continuities and interdependencies between new media and old media (such as television) [] exist at the level of form and content, as well as in terms of economics. (Buckingham 2008: 14) [T]he advent of a new technology may change the functions or uses of old technologies, but it rarely

completely displaces them. (Buckingham 2008: 14) [L]earning is influenced more by the content and instructional strategy in a medium than by the type of medium. (Clark 1994: 21) 3. Media repertoire 18 3. Media repertoire functions along media types Body Textbook Blackboard OHP

Pictures Texts Audiovisual media Multimedia projector CD-Rom Smartphone Apps Computer/laptop

3. Media repertoire 19 3. Media repertoire functions along media types Collect and discuss tasks, activities, projects that could be carried out in the EFL classroom to facilitate media literacy and address the teaching objectives outlined above. 3. Media repertoire 20 4. Digital technologies digital media: friend or foe? Euphoric proposals promoting digital

media in teaching Pessimistic stances on how digital media have caused a dumbingdown of society 4. Digital technologies: new horizons, new challenges Opinions which stress that the risks of digital media need to be addressed, but generally opt for an integrative and reflected use

21 4. Digital technologies net generation? ? Digital Immigrant instructors, who speak an outdated language (that of the pre-digital age), are struggling to teach a population that speaks an entirely new language. Prensky 2001a: 2 4. Digital technologies: new horizons, new challenges 22 4. Digital technologies net generation? ! The alleged rift between these two generations has now been relativized!

inept generalizations media use, competencies and motivation differ statistics paint a diverse picture 4. Digital technologies: new horizons, new challenges 23 4. Digital technologies: new horizons, new challenges What students expect from their teachers Teachers could learn more about what young people think and how they reflect on media such as computer games. In my opinion, one should learn more about

cyber-bullying because that is one of the worst things in chatrooms. Data protection is another important issue! Which kind of information is one allowed to share and publish?! These topics should be addressed more at school. A lot of students know more about the use of media than most teachers. [] It is a real shame that our so-called media teacher is not able to play a video because he does not know how to open the media player. 4. Digital technologies: new horizons, new challenges Keine Bildung ohne Medien! 2010: 1-5, own trans. 24 4. Digital

technologies: new horizons, new challenges Reflect on the student statements. Assess your technology-related instructional competences and discuss how these could be improved. 4. Digital technologies: new horizons, new challenges Teachers could learn more about what young people think and how they reflect on media such as computer games. In my opinion, one should learn more about

cyber-bullying because that is one of the worst things in chatrooms. Data protection is another important issue! Which kind of information is one allowed to share and publish?! These topics should be addressed more at school. A lot of students know more about the use of media than most teachers. [] It is a real shame that our so-called media teacher is not able to play a video because he does not know how to open the media player. Keine Bildung ohne Medien! 2010: 1-5, own trans. 25 4. Digital technologies: new horizons, new challenges impact on learning Used in problem- & project -oriented learning as well as open teaching and learning

scenarios Students adopt increasingly active roles more self-regulated learning takes place Online publishing, cooperation with external partners more responsibility for learning process & outcome Peer-tutoring Cooperation (e. g., classes in other countries, authors, media experts) 4. Digital technologies: new horizons, new challenges Schulz-Zander 2003: n. p. 26 4. Digital technologies: new horizons, new challenges impact on learning Access Multifunctionality and convergence Portability, ubiquity, personal ownership User-generated content and contexts

Interactivity and non-linearity Distributed knowledge construction Multimodal knowledge representation 4. Digital technologies: new horizons, new challenges Pachler 2014: 146 27 4. Digital technologies: new horizons, new challenges Technological pedagogical content knowledge Koehler & Mishra 2009: 63 4. Digital technologies: new horizons, new challenges

28 5. Four examples of media use Beginners: writing and illustrating a picture book Stafford 2011: 48-49, adapted 5. Four examples of media use 29 5. Four examples of media use Intermediate learners: weather reports with fun

Grimm & Riecken 2014, adapted 5. Four examples of media use 30 5. Four examples of media use Upper-intermediate learners: telling stories in pictures project: M. Meyer, undocumented 5. Four examples of media use 31

5. Four examples of media use Advanced learners: platformbased literature project Klemm & Grimm 2013, adapted 5. Four examples of media use 32 Recommended reading Albers, Carsten; Johannes Magenheim & Dorothee M. Meister (2011). Der Einsatz digitaler Medien als Herausforderung von Schule: Eine Annherung. In: Carsten Albers; Johannes Magenheim & Dorothee M. Meister, eds. Schule in der digitalen Welt: Medienpdagogische Anstze und Schulforschungsperspektiven. Wiesbaden: VS, 7-16. Grimm, Nancy (2012). Digital Media: Promise for or Threat to Education? In: Maria Eisenmann & Theresa Summer, eds. Basic Issues in EFL Teaching and Learning. Heidelberg: Winter, 229-40. Groeben, Norbert (2002). Dimensionen der Medienkompetenz: Deskriptive und normative Aspekte. In:

Norbert Groeben & Bettina Hurrelmann, eds. Medienkompetenz: Voraussetzungen, Dimensionen, Funktionen. Weinheim et al.: Juventa, 160-97. Medienanstalt Hamburg/Schleswig Holstein (2010). Medienbildung (k)ein Unterrichtsfach? Eine Expertise zum Stellenwert der Medienkompetenzfrderung in Schulen. Hamburg: Universitt Hamburg. Reinfried, Marcus & Laurenz Volkmann, eds. (2012). Medien im neokommunikativen Fremdsprachenunterricht: Einsatzformen, Inhalte, Lernerkompetenzen. Frankfurt a. M. et al.: Lang. Voigts-Virchow, Eckhart (2005). Introduction to Media Studies. Stuttgart et al.: Klett. Volkmann, Laurenz (2005). Demokratisierung des Lernens oder Medienverwahrlosung? berlegungen zum didaktischen Umgang mit dem Internet. In: Gabriele Blell & Rita Kupetz, eds. Fremdsprachenlernen zwischen Medienverwahrlosung und Medienkompetenz: Beitrge zu einer kritisch-reflektierenden Mediendidaktik. Frankfurt a. M. et al.: Lang, 43-66. Chapter 5: Grammar and vocabulary 33 Acknowledgments Banse, Gerhard & Andreas Metzner-Szigeth (2012). Cultural Diversity and New Media Their Interaction as an Element of European Integration: Elaborating a European Research Network. In: Annely Rothkegel & Sonja Ruda, eds.

Communication on and via Technology. Berlin et al.: de Gruyter, 217-258. Buckingham, David (2008). Introducing Identity. In: David Buckingham, ed. Youth, Identity, and Digital Media. Cambridge, MA et al.: MIT, 1-22. Clark, Richard E. (1994). Media Will Never Influence Learning. In: Educational Technology: Research & Development 42.2, 21-29. Cazden, Courtney; Bill Cope; Norman Fairclough & James P. Gee (1996). A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures. In: Harvard Educational Review 66.1, 60-92. Daz Vera, Javier E. (2012). Great Expectations: Formalizing and Transforming Mobile-Assisted Language Learning. In: Javier E. Daz Vera, ed. Left to My Own Devices: Learner Autonomy and Mobile-Assisted Language Learning. Bingley: Emerald, xi-xix. Duncum, Paul (2010). Seven Principles for Visual Culture Education. In: Art Education 63.1, 6-10. Evans, Michael (2012). Introduction: Traditional and Modern Media. In: Maria Eisenmann & Theresa Summer, eds. Basic Issues in EFL Teaching and Learning. Heidelberg: Winter, 217-27. Grimm, Nancy & Olesya Riecken (2014). Whats the Weather Like? Oder: Weather Reports With Fun. In: Praxis Schule 5-10 6, 21-27. Hug, Theo (2002). Medienpdagogik: Begriffe, Konzeptionen, Perspektiven. In: Gebhard Rusch, ed. Einfhrung in die Medienwissenschaft: Konzeptionen, Theorien, Methoden, Anwendungen. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag, 189-207. Chapter 5: Grammar and vocabulary

34 Acknowledgments Keine Bildung ohne Medien! (2010). Schler fordern: Mehr mit und ber Medien lernen! http:// www.keine-bildung-ohne-medien.de/presse/svz-auswertung_offene-fragen.pdf. Klemm, Uwe & Nancy Grimm (2013). Go Edmondo: Plattformgesttzte Lektre des Romans A Long Way Down. In: Babylonia 3, 50-54. Koehler, Matthew J. & Punya Mishra (2009). What Is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge? In: Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education 9.1, 60-70. Pachler, Norbert; Michael Evans; Ana Redondo & Linda Fisher (2014). Learning to Teach Foreign Languages in the Secondary School: A Companion to School Experience. 4th ed. London et al.: Routledge. Prensky, Marc (2001a). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part I. In: On the Horizon 9.5, 1-6. Schulz-Zander, Renate (2003). Nationale Ergebnisse der internationalen IEA-Studie SITES Modul 2, Second Information Technology in Education Study: Zusammenfassung zentraler Ergebnisse. http://ipso.ifsdortmund.de/pdf/Kurzfassungschlussbericht4.pdf. Stafford, Tim (2011). Teaching Visual Literacy in the Primary Classroom: Comic Books, Film, Television and Picture Narratives. Abingdon et al.: Routledge. Wermke, Jutta (1997). Integrierte Medienerziehung im Fachunterricht: Schwerpunkt Deutsch. Munich: kopaed.

Wiepcke, Claudia; Ewald Mittelstaedt & Andreas Liening (2008). Blended Learning Approaches to Enhance Gender Mainstreaming. In: Asian Women 24.4, 21-41. Chapter 5: Grammar and vocabulary 35 Acknowledgments The cartoons at the beginning of each ppt were designed by Frollein Motte, 2014. If not otherwise indicated, the copyright of the figures lies with the authors. The complete titles of the sources can be found in the references to the units unless given below. All of the websites were checked on 10 September 2014. Slide 3: Focal areas of media pedagogy, based on Hug 2002, 8-9 Slide 6: Multiliteracies model, Cazden et al. 1996: 83 Slide 7: Media literacy, based on Wermke 1997: 145 Slide 8: Whale Rider movie posters, http://www.impawards.com/2003/whale_rider.html, http:// www.impawards.com/2003/whale_rider_ver3.html Slide 11: http://www.onlydeadfish.co.uk/only_dead_fish/2011/01/future-trends-innovation-briefing.html, https:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Working_Together_Teamwork_Puzzle_Concept.jpg, https://leadershipfreak.wordpress.com/2012/07/11/women-dont-take-risks-like-men, http://

www.navigaweb.net/2015/02/trovare-la-password-del-wifi-se.html, http://edmodo.antoniogarrido.es, http:// research.northumbria.ac.uk/support/2015/03/23/ee-research-funding-drop-in-session-24th-march-2-5pm-pandon-217 Slide 14: http:// www.wiskundemeisjes.nl/20130311/beste-wethouders-van-onderwijs-over-loten-in-het-voortgezet-onderwijs, http:// www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=56146&picture=woman-teacher-cartoon&large=1, http:// www.meganford.net/lifelong-learner.html Slide 16: Extract from Comenius Orbis sensualium pictus, https:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Orbis_pictus?uselang=de#/media/File:Orbis-pictus-024.jpg Slide 17: Blended learning: media, methods, and theories, adapted from Wiepcke et al. 2008: 30 Chapter 5: Grammar and vocabulary 36 Acknowledgments Slide 19: http://www.clipshrine.com/multiple-user-icons-different-colors-16122-cv-b.html, http:// www.clipshrine.com/straighten-books-4600-medium.html, http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=37299&large=1, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overhead_projector#/media/File:OHP-sch.JPG, https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%B6gel#/media/File:House_Sparrow_(M)_I_IMG_7881.jpg, http://

blog.prathambooks.org/2010/07/conferences-contests-and-workshops.html, http:// www.publicpolicy.telefonica.com/blogs/blog/2011/05/14/oecd-discussions-on-trade-restrictions-on-audiovisual-services, https:// pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Projektor, http://www.clipshrine.com/cdrom-disk-floder-15670-medium.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smartphone#/media/File:IPhone_5S_home_button.png, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_app#/ media/File:Apps_on_Nexus_4.png, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laptop#/media/File:Microsoft_Surface_Pro_3_with_Type_Cover.jpg Slide 21: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Digitale_Kompetenzen_01-09-2014_3.JPG?uselang=de#/ media/File:Digitale_Kompetenzen_01-09-2014_3.JPG Slide 22 & 23: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Library#/media/File:SteacieLibrary.jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_app#/ media/File:Apps_on_Nexus_4.png Slide 24: http://201037825.wikispaces.com/%2A%2A+Example+of+a+Blog+%2A%2A Slide 28: The TPACK framework and its knowledge components, Koehler, Matthew J., & Mishra, Punya (2009). What Is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education 9.1, S. 63. Available online http://tpack.org; Reproduced by permission of the publisher, 2012 by tpack.org Slide 29: https://pixabay.com/en/t-rex-dinosaur-animal-prehistoric-311592, writing and illustrating a picture book, adapted from Stafford 2011: 48-49 Slide 30: word cloud created with tagxedo.com, weather reports with fun, adapted from Grimm & Riecken 2014 Slide 31: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point_of_view_shot#/media/File:The_Driller_Killer_Pinball_Scene_Shot_to_Shot.png; project M. Meyer, undocumented

Slide 32: screenshot of project homepage, https://toppersjump.wordpress.com; Platform-based literature project, adapted from Klemm & Grimm 2013 Chapter 5: Grammar and vocabulary 37

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