Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? G. Peter and Carolyn R. Wilson Boston College Canadian Academic Accounting Association 2013 Annual Meeting May 30, 2013 Slides posted at www.navigatingaccounting.com/presentation/presentations#Teaching 1 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Agenda Brief description of flipped classroom Hands on illustrations
Your balance sheet: accounting judgments Intel and Starbucks: applications of basic concepts Analyzing income statements across time and industries Mall exercise: financial leverage and the credit crisis Motivating preparation and participation (time permitting) Wrap up What, if any, valuable lessons did you learn? What, if any, actions are you ready to seriously pursue? 2 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Flipped Classroom New Roles Students roles Move as far as possible up the thinking hierarchy outside of class, given time constraints and available resources.
Move further up the hierarchy during class by participating in interactive activities that require faculty involvement. Facultys roles Help students locate and utilize resources, develop class activities and assignments that move them further up the hierarchy, and facilitate interactive discussions. Develop ways to assess higher-level thinking that provide appropriate feedback, motivation, and 3 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Hands On Illustration Accounting Judgment (Level 2) Exercise materials PowerPoint and OneNote slides and teaching note video http://navigatingaccounting.com/content/instructors-forum#part-2-asset-liability-and-owners-equity-measures-anchor
Your Balance Sheet Exercise http://www.navigatingaccounting.com/exercise/exercise-bswis050 4 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Hands On Illustration Discussion Which parts of the exercise centered on terms, concepts, procedures, processes, or problems where experts would agree on the answers to related questions? How else could you have taught these issues? To what extent, if at all, would you expect students understanding of the issues to differ for these alternatives? Which parts of the exercise centered on issues where experts can reasonably disagree on the answers to related questions?
How, if at all, would you expect these exercises to change students perceptions about accounting? What are similar misconceptions students bring to other courses that are difficult to overcome and hinder learning? 5 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Hands On Illustration Discussion To what extent would you expect students to be willing and ready to participate in the discussions? What aspects of the content promote participation? What aspects of the discussion format promote
participation? What are the essential elements of these exercises? To what extent would exercises that include these elements be effective in other areas besides financial accounting? Outline an exercise for a topic in another area where students face similar learning challenges. 6 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Hands On Illustration Discussion Are you ready and willing to seriously consider flipping? What are your concerns?
7 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Hands On Illustration Applications of Basic Concepts (Level 1) Exercise materials PowerPoint and OneNote slides and teaching note video http://www.navigatingaccounting.com/content/instructors-forum#part-7-income-measures-anchor Intel Exercise http://www.navigatingaccounting.com/exercise/exercise-iswisscoe021 Starbucks Exercise http://www.navigatingaccounting.com/exercise/exercise-iswbnisbse060 8 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Hands On Illustration In-Depth Analyses (Level 2) Exercise materials Analyzing Income Statements Across Time and Industries http://
www.navigatingaccounting.com/exercise/industry-comparisons-exercises-series-04#exercise-2-income-statements-a nd-return-on-assets-anchor 9 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Hands On Illustration Risks and Rewards Application (Level 2) Exercise materials PowerPoint and OneNote slides and teaching note video http:// www.navigatingaccounting.com/content/instructors-forum#part-5-risk-and-rewards-application-mall-exercise-credit-cri sis-anchor Mall Exercise and Credit Crisis http://www.navigatingaccounting.com/exercise/exercise-bshunafc030 10 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivating Preparation and Participation Challenges
Responsibilities They dont know their responsibilities. Motivation They arent sufficiently motivated to meet them. Resource constraints They dont have access to the resources needed to TODAYS FOCUS meet them or dont know about available resources. Strategies They dont have effective strategies to use resources. 11
Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities Key things students should bring to class Preparation: Students are responsible for preparing diligently for class by completing the daily assignments. Attitude: Students are responsible for bringing a positive learning attitude to class each day that helps create a vibrant learning environment. 12 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Root Causes
Why arent students motivated to accept their responsibilities? To what extent are the following causal factors: Systemic bad habits? Insufficient interest in accounting or your course? Competing interests? Ineffective incentives?
Others? How can we mitigate these factors? 13 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Systematic Bad Habits The problem Students have bad habits and dont know what their missing: They often arent being held adequately accountable for preparation in other courses. They dont realize how stimulating and effective classes can be when everyone comes to class highly prepared.
We have a marketing problem we are trying to sell a high priced product that is not understood: Students understand the costs of preparing rigorously but they severely under estimate the benefits. 14 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Systematic Bad Habits Mitigating the problem. Continuously communicate the benefits of rigorous preparation through words and deeds. Raising this bar initially brings considerable resistance and results in significant declines in enrollments and teaching evaluations.
However, as students begin to experience the benefits, they spread the word and gradually there is a ripple effect. Why can we be optimistic that this will be the outcome? Generally teachers who offer challenging and rewarding courses attract the best students, have high enrollments, and get outstanding teaching evaluations. 15 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Systematic Bad Habits Excerpt from course map (syllabus) for core course The homework assignments are very demanding and we fully expect most of you to come to class still struggling to gain closure and some of you to come totally confused.
If you come to class prepared but confused, you may not feel comfortable, but there is a good chance you will leave with closure on most of the session learning objectives. By contrast, if you come feeling comfortable but not prepared, you will surely leave totally confused. 16 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Insufficient Interest in Course Problem Students find accounting or your course far too boring and largely irrelevant to their future interests. 17 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom?
Motivation Responsibilities: Insufficient Interest in Course Potential root causes of the problem. Students are correct: Accounting or our course is boring and largely irrelevant to their futures. They are wrong but we are not much wiser: We fail to fully grasp how critically important accounting or our course is to society and to our students futures. We get it but we dont communicate it effectively: We appreciate how vital accounting or our course is but fail to convey our enthusiasm and insights in ways students find relevant to their current and future endeavors. 18 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom?
Motivation Responsibilities: Insufficient Interest in Course Mitigating the problem Develop and share a deep passion for accounting or your course: Continually seek a broader understanding of the role of accounting or your course in society and share what you learn with your students enthusiastically. Repeatedly emphasize relevance: Continually motivate the relevance of the course goals, daily learning objectives and assignments to practice settings students find relevant and to their careers and personal finances. 19 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Insufficient Interest in Course
Excerpt from assigned reading for core course By the time you complete this course, you will likely have a much different image of accountants than you started with, and hopefully you will begin to entertain the idea that you should learn to think like an accountant, even if you choose not to become one. You will learn that accounting is the language of business and that the publics image of record keeping and other procedures associated with accounting is only the grammar. In particular, a subtle aspect of accounting, like nuances in other languages, is that it both depicts and influences business reality and culture. 20 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Competing Interests The problem Your course is a low priority relative to: Social or leisure activities
Family obligations Job obligations Other courses Other interests 21 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Competing Interests Mitigating the problem
Elevate students enthusiasm for accounting or your course. As discussed earlier Seek synergies with students other interests: Connect assignments to their work, other courses, personal finances, or social and leisure activities. Promote curriculum changes to these ends. Promote more effective use of time and other resources. Manage course incentives more effectively. As discussed next 22 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom?
Motivation Responsibilities: Ineffective Incentives The problem The point system used to determine course grades and the standards to earn grades could be more effective at promoting pre-class preparation. The things we do to foster ownership of the course and loyalty to the course could be more effective. The things we do to promote striving for the personal satisfaction that is gained from learning for learnings sake could be more effective. The things we do to encourage students to seek peer recognition for being smart and build a learning community
could be more effective. 23 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Ineffective Incentives Mitigating the problem. Raise the standards to earn grades and use competitive rather than absolute standards for the higher grades. Encourage group work and take other steps to ensure a healthy balance between cooperation and competition. Where appropriate, assign more points to individual and/or group class-preparation assignments and grade them discriminately and competitively. 24
Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Ineffective Incentives The incentives must fit the context. Introductory course: 30% of grade is based on group assignments. 10% is based on other class participation. 60% is based on exams. The process used to award grades has incentives to both compete and cooperate.
Advanced course: 100% of grade is based on weekly group assignments. 25 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Ineffective Incentives Minimize free rider problems Undergrad introductory course: Group selection: Initially students can form their own groups or be assigned to groups randomly. They have the option to reform groups at midpoint. Two 360 evaluations that can significantly affect the scores
group members receive on assignments. A group is randomly selected to present and defend its response to assigned questions. A randomly selected member represents the group. Everyone in the group gets this persons participation score. 26 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Ineffective Incentives Assign more points to participation and grade discriminately Provide alternative forums: class versus on-line blog. Cold call and/or use clickers to keep students engaged. Probe deeply and frequently: Reward students for offering alternative hypotheses and
for providing facts, theories and compelling logic that refutes or supports them. Reward students for connecting their points to those raised earlier in the discussion by others (promotes listening). Ask students to present the strongest counter arguments to their arguments. Probing this class motivates better preparation for next class. 27 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Ineffective Incentives Enhancing course ownership and loyalty
Share personal motivations, commitment and enthusiasm about the course. Share responsibility and accountability for the courses success. Set high, relevant, and achievable goals and help students connect them to their personal goals, current events, and other courses. Establish trust through leadership and caring. Let students know when they are not meeting their responsibilities and encourage them to let you know when you
are not meeting yours. 28 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Responsibilities: Ineffective Incentives Promote learning for learnings sake Dont allow What is on the exam? questions. Continually remind students that learning is more important than grades. Continually remind them that you are motivated to put more effort into teaching when you think they are in class to learn to become better managers and that you would be repulsed to learn that they were simply there to pass exams.
Create stimulating discussions that have after burn. Frequently ask in class, What did you learn today? 29 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Key Lessons The two biggest success factors for a great learning experience are preparation and a positive attitude on the part of all involved. Students will under prepare and not succeed to the extent: They dont fully comprehend their pre-class responsibilities.
They arent sufficiently motivated to meet them. They are motivated to meet them but dont have the resources to succeed. They are motivated and have the resources but dont have strategies to succeed. 30 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Motivation Key Lessons Our challenge is to understand the root causes behind these four factors and identify ways to mitigate them. These challenges will often be contextual, depending on:
Our schools missions. Our students goals, experience, aptitudes, and aspirations. Our primary goal today has been to illustrate ways to identify and mitigate these problems. 31 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Wrap Up What progress did we make: Identifying ways to flip the classroom?
Identifying the challenges associated with flipping? Exploring the extent to which flipping is appropriate for your courses? What, if any, valuable lessons did you learn? What, if any, actions are you ready to seriously pursue? 32 Is it Time to Flip the Classroom? Aim High Gold medalist flippers Marva Collins
http://www.marvacollins.com/biography.html Eric Mazur http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwslBPj8GgI Richard Feynman http://uweanimation.blogspot.com/ 2011/03/interesting-scientist-richardfeynman.html 33
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