An Introduction to Sport Education Gary D. Kinchin, PhD School of Education University of Southampton Purpose of Presentation Why should the sport education model be considered? What is sport education? How does sport education work?
What do pupils and the teacher do within this model? Orientation to Sport Education Think of a major sporting event and identify some of features we might see Teams, announcers, uniforms, teamnames, a schedule, leagues, managers, coaches, records/stats etc etc Think of the features that might legitimately be reproduced in PE what happens to the list? It gets considerably shorter!!
A rationale Much of the teaching of sport is decontextualized Some children struggle to see the relevance of what they are learning [disengagement] Children are often only taught from the players point of view Therefore their experiences are incomplete Pupils need a fuller understanding of a sport experience planning, management/organization & participation Challenge the predominance of teacher-directed
approaches In sum(Siedentop, 1994, p.7-8). Skills are taught in isolation rather than as part of the natural context of executing strategy in gamelike situations. The rituals, values and traditions of a sport that give it meaning are seldom mentioned, let alone taught in ways that students can experience them. The affiliation with a team or group that provides the context for personal growth and responsibility in sport is noticeably absent in physical education. The ebb and flow of a sport season is seldom captured in a short-term sport instruction unit.
Students are not educated in sport Sport Education asks us to re-think sport learning. Are sport experiences positive for all pupils in PE? Marginalization, win-at-all-costs The benefits of more authentic sport participation should perhaps not be confined to those who regularly attend those opportunities [club, interschool] Short units of work minimise the extent to which children might develop their competence QCA (2002) claim extended units assist in helping children
practice more often, improve continuity of their learning, and recall more of what was has been learned In doing so is there a way of teaching PE which promotes a.. positive authentic
meaningful & inclusive sport experience for all. Three Major Goals of Sport Education Sport Education was developed by Daryl Siedentop (Ohio State) 1. Competent sportsperson Participates, understands, executes strategy (knowledgeable) 2. Literate sportsperson
Rules, values, rituals, traditions Distinguishes between good and bad sport Critical consumer of sport and physical activity? 3. Enthusiastic sportsperson Behaves in ways to preserve sport and enhances opportunities for others (individuals are involved) Features of Sport Education Adopts features of organized sport to bring authenticity. Affiliation: sustained for duration of season on a smallsided team (prepare, practice, compete) Seasons: longer than typical 12-20 sessions
Formal schedule of modified competition (planned and publicized): e.g. 3v3 volleyball, Records kept and publicized (scores, points) Culminating Event: World Series, World Champs, Commonwealth Games, Champions League, NBA/WNBA Play-offs Festivity: replicate the occasion of sport, atmosphere, appealing features Team names, team colours, banners, awards, notice-boards, match reports, interviews, letters to the media What do children do? Can help determine teams (strategies)
Remain on a team (affiliation) Warm-up, practice, competition The team has a name, emblem, logo etc Has their own warm-up and practice area In addition to being a player first pupils take on a role on their team with responsibilities Captain, choreographer, fitness trainer, equipment manager, coach, reporter, commentator, equity officer, statistician Continued Pupils are taught by the teacher initially and
progressively more by their peers (coach, captain) teacher led pupil led Pupils help determine modified competition rules/codes of conduct, & consequences of unfair play Bring equipment to the teaching space and return it In time organize and conduct their team practices Develop & evaluate their own plays/practices Try out strategies, evaluate and adjust as a team Prepare their teams for competitions Determine starting line-ups, rosters, pairings (tennis, badminton), playing positions
In sum, pupils support the organisational elements of the lesson: equipment etc learn from the teacher initially and more by peers while fulfilling their roles peer teach engage in cooperative learning make decisions about what they do and what they will try to achieve access the teacher as a resource/facilitator
What do teachers do? Selects teams (if they prefer to) Progressively hand over responsibility to children--teacher becomes a facilitator/resource Circulates and gives help to individuals or individual teams Give support to leaders, Have more time to promote affective element [group working, responsibility] Lessons: Thumbnail sketch Early season lessons: skill & strategy review led mostly by the teacher Mid-season lessons: mixture of teacher-led
& pupil led instruction (prescribed or at discretion of team captain/coach) Late Season (mostly pupil-led) team-based practice Cross-curricular links. Journal writing (literacy) Reflect upon the process of participation Team portfolios (Art, ICT) Curricular Integration conflict resolution & caring (PSHE/Cit.)
logos, team mascots, journal covers (Art) statistics/pictures re; sport scores, shot percentages, goals etc (ICT) research sportspeople (library work) cultural awareness/rituals/traditions (history) media attention (social studies) TLRP (2007): Effective principles of teaching and learning
Equip learners for life Engage learners in valued knowledge Recognise prior learning/experience Foster individual and social processes and outcomes Group/cooperative learning Promote active engagement of the learner Sport Education Attractions
Promotes the benefits of team affiliation Helps children understand loyalty Develops a sense of membership, belonging Allows learners to remain on the same team for the entire unit Offers situations where children can understand their individual strengths and weaknesses Allows teams/groups to fashion a unique
identity Develops leadership skills in a range of ways Continued Leads to a broader & more complete understanding of particular activities Ensure all learners have a specific purpose for coming to a lesson Exposes children practically to the rituals, traditions, and values that give sport(s) unique meaning Places children in situations where they can make organizational decisions
Makes explicit when a pupil is competitive and when they are co-operative Offers an extended experience that supports the ebb and flow of a sport season Thank you
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