Teaching with the Revised BloomsTaxonomy Janet Giesen Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center Taxonomy = Classification Classification of thinking Six cognitive levels of complexity Why use Blooms taxonomy? Write and revise learning objectives Plan curriculum Identifies simple to
most difficult skills Effectively align objectives to assessment techniques and standards Incorporate knowledge to be learned (knowledge dimension) and cognitive process to learn Facilitate questioning (oral language = important role within framework)
Original Revised Evaluation Creating Synthesis Evaluating Analysis Analyzing
Application Applying Comprehension Understanding Knowledge Remembering Noun Verb Original
Change in Terms Categories noun to verb Taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking (thinking is an active process) verbs describe actions, nouns do not Reorganized categories Knowledge = product/outcome of thinking (inappropriate to describe a category of thinking) now remembering Comprehension now understanding Synthesis now creating to better reflect nature of thinking described by each category Handout # Changes in Structure Products of thinking part of taxonomy
Forms of knowledge = factual, conceptual, procedural, metacognitive (thinking about thinking) Synthesis (creating) and evaluation (evaluating) interchanged Creative thinking more complex form of thinking than critical thinking (evaluating) Handout # Changes in Emphasis USE: More authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment Aimed at broader audience Easily applied to all levels of education Revision emphasizes explanation and description of subcategories
Handout # Remembering The learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned information Describing Finding Identifying Listing Retrieving Naming Locating Recognizing Can students recall information?
Understanding Student grasps meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned Classifying Comparing Exemplifying Explaining Inferring Interpreting Paraphrasing Summarizing Can students explain ideas or concepts?
Applying Student makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned Implementing Carrying out c = Using Executing Can students use the information in another familiar situation? Analyzing
Student breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information Attributing Comparing Deconstructing Finding Integrating Organizing Outlining Structuring Can students break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships? Evaluating Student makes decisions based on in-depth
reflection, criticism and assessment Checking Critiquing Detecting Experimenting Hypothesising Judging Monitoring Testing Can students justify a decision or a course of action? Creating Student creates new ideas and information using what previously has been learned
Constructing Designing Devising Inventing Making Planning Producing Can students generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things? Questioning . . . Lower level questionsremembering, understanding & lower level applying levels Lower level questions Evaluate students preparation and
comprehension Diagnose students strengths and weaknesses Review and/or summarizing content Handout # University of Illinois (2006) Questioning . . . Higher level questions require complex application, analysis, evaluation or creation skills Higher level questions Encourage students to think more deeply and critically Facilitate problem solving Encourage discussions
Stimulate students to seek information on their own Handout # University of Illinois (2006) Remembering stems What happened after...? How many...? What is...? Who was it that...? Name ... Find the definition of Describe what happened after Who spoke to...? Which is true or false...? (Pohl, 2000)
Understanding stems Explain why Write in your own words How would you explain? Write a brief outline... What do you think could have happened next...? Who do you think...? What was the main idea...? Clarify Illustrate (Pohl, 2000) Applying stems Explain another instance where Group by characteristics such as Which factors would you change if?
What questions would you ask of? From the information given, develop a set of instructions about (Pohl, 2000) Analyzing stems Which events could not have happened? If. ..happened, what might the ending have been? How is...similar to...? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did...changes occur? Explain what must have happened when... What are some or the problems of...? Distinguish between... What were some of the motives behind..? What was the turning point?
What was the problem with...? (Pohl, 2000) Evaluating stems Judge the value of... What do you think about...? Defend your position about... Do you think...is a good or bad thing? How would you have handled...? What changes to would you recommend? Do you believe...? How would you feel if...? How effective are...? What are the consequences...? What influence will....have on our lives? What are the pros and cons of....? Why is....of value? What are the alternatives? Who will gain & who will loose?
(Pohl, 2000) Creating stems Design a...to... Devise a possible solution to... If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...? Devise your own way to... What would happen if ...? How many ways can you...? Create new and unusual uses for... Develop a proposal which would... (Pohl, 2000) Summary Blooms revised taxonomy
Systematic process of thinking & learning Assists assessment efforts with easy-to-use format Visual representation of alignment between goals & objectives with standards, activities, & outcomes Helps form challenging questions to help students gain knowledge & critical thinking skills Assists in development of goals, objectives, & lesson plans Lets Practice! Worksheets Thank You! Discussion and Questions
References and Resources Cruz, E. (2003). Bloom's revised taxonomy. In B. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/bloomrev/start.htm Dalton, J. & Smith, D. (1986) Extending childrens special abilities: Strategies for primary classrooms. http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/researchskills/dalton.htm Ferguson, C. (2002). Using the revised Blooms Taxonomy to plan and deliver team-taught, integrated, thematic units. Theory into Practice, 41(4), 239-244. Forehand, M. (2008). Blooms Taxonomy: From emerging perspectives on learning, teaching and technology. http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Bloom%27s_Taxonomy Mager, R. E. (1997). Making instruction work or skillbloomers: A step-by-step guide to designing and developing instruction that works, (2nd ed.). Atlanta, GA: The Center for Effective Performance, Inc. Mager, R. E. (1997). Preparing instructional objectives: A critical tool in the development of effective instruction, (3rd ed.). Atlanta, GA: The Center for Effective Performance, Inc. Pohl, Michael. (2000). Learning to think, thinking to learn: Models and strategies to develop a classroom culture of thinking. Cheltenham, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow.
Tarlinton (2003). Blooms revised taxonomy. http://www.kurwongbss.qld.edu.au/thinking/Bloom/bloomspres.ppt. University of Illinois, Center for Teaching Excellence (2006). Blooms taxonomy. www.oir.uiuc.edu/Did/docs/QUESTION/quest1.htm
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