TECTONIC PROCESSES AND HAZARDS REVISION SUMMARY Aim: To create summary mind maps for each sub section To look at some typical A level style questions Kilauea: Earthquakes follow eruptions from Hawaii volcano (May 5 th 2018) http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-44012046 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-44027883 Kilauea: Hawaii volcano destroys dozens of homes May 7th 2018 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/science-environment-4390242 4/mesmerising-footage-shows-lava-lake-overflow-in-hawaii Mesmerising footage shows lava lake overflow in Hawaii April 25 th 2018 The topic is divided into three enquiry questions. 1. Why are some locations more at risk from tectonic hazards? 2. Why do some tectonic hazards develop into disasters? 3. How successful is the management of tectonic hazards
and disasters? How will I be questioned in the exam? Tectonics is a CORE topic so it can be tested in Paper 1 AND Paper 3 It is Topic 1:Dynamic Processes and Hazards: In Paper 1 there will be : 1 x 4 mark question testing quantitative skills 1 x 12 mark Assess essay TOTAL = 16 /105 marks (15 % of the whole of Paper1) *You would be advised to spend around 20 mins on this section* In Paper 3 it could be linked to another core topic forming the basis of the whole exam so you ARE ADVISED TO REVISE THIS FULLY FOR PAPER 3 . This is worth 70 marks and 20% of your A level EQ 1: Why are some locations more at risk from tectonic hazards? The global distribution of tectonic hazards can be explained by plate boundary theory and other tectonic processes: Distribution of plate boundaries resulting from divergent, convergent and conservative plate movements
Theory of plate tectonics and its key elements: (earths internal structure, mantle convection, palaeomagnetism, sea floor spreading , subduction and slab pull) Earthquake waves (P,S and L waves) cause crustal fracturing, ground shaking and secondary hazards (liquefaction and landslides) Global distribution and causes of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis There are theoretical frameworks that attempt to explain plate movements: The operation of these processes at different plate margins ( destructive, constructive, collision and transform) Physical processes explain the causes of tectonic hazards Volcanoes cause lava flows, pyroclastic flows, ash falls, gas eruptions, and secondary hazards(lahars, jokulhlaup)
Causes of intra-plate earthquakes and volcanoes associated with hot spots from mantle plumes Physical processes impact on the magnitude and type of volcanic eruption and earthquake magnitude and focal depth (Benioff zone) Tsunamis can be caused by submarine earthquakes at subduction zones as a result of sea-bed and water column displacement Typical A (and AS) level Style questions for Enquiry Question 1 *N.B Dont negate the AS style questions as they could be asked in a very similar format at A level You would be WISE to REVISE from both..!* AS Spec 1 1a) Name one scale used to measure earthquake magnitude (1) Study fig 1 in the resource booklet. bi)Complete the scattergraph by adding the data for the earthquake of Sichun-Yunnan in china and then add a line of best fit.(2) ii) Suggest one reason why the more powerful earthquakes shown in fig 1 did not cause the most deaths (3) d) Explain the causes of tsunamis (6)
AS May 2017: 1a) Plate movement can be explained by several processes. Identify 1 process that occurs only at destructive plate boundaries (1) b) study fig 1 in the resource booklet. i) compare the data on the 2 earthquakes (2) d) Explain the tectonic hazards that may result from volcanic activity (6) A Level Spec 1 1ai) Part completed spearmans rank question involving tsunamis (4) Dynamic learning (p80) a) Study fig 1. Analyse the pattern of the depth of earthquake hypocentres shown on the map (4) Dynamic learning (p85) a) Study fig 1. Analyse the global pattern of the distribution of active volcanoes ( 4) Pearson (p.65) Assess the relative importance of the physical characteristics of volcanic eruptions in creating risk for people (12) Hodder Revision (p.94) AS Explain the causes of earthquakes (6) EQ 2: Why do some tectonic hazards develop into disasters? Disaster occurrence can be explained by the relationship between hazards, vulnerability, resilience and disaster Definition of a natural hazards and a disaster- the importance of vulnerability and a communitys threshold for resilience; the hazard risk equation
Pressure and Release (PAR) model and the complex inter-relationships between the hazard and its wider context. Tectonic hazard profiles Measuring Tectonic Hazards: are important to an understanding of contrasting hazard impacts, vulnerability and resilience Mercalli Moment Magnitude Scale(MMS) Richter Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) Inequality of access to education, housing , healthcare and income opportunities can influence vulnerability and resilience Comparing characteristics of earthquakes,
volcanoes and tsunamis( magnitude,speed of onset,areal extent, duration,frequency, spatial predictability) through hazard profiles) Development and Governance Governance (local or national) and geographical factors (pop density, isolation and accessibility, degree of urbanization) influence vulnerability and a communitys resilience Social and economic impacts of tectonic hazards(volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis)on the people, econ and envir of contrasting locations in the developing, emerging and developed world Profiles of earthquake, volcano and tsunami events showing the severity of social and economic impact in developed, emerging and developing countries Contrasting hazard events in developed, emerging and
developing countries show the interaction of physical factors and the significance of context in influencing the scale of disaster Typical A (and AS) level Style questions for Enquiry Question 2 AS :Spec 1:e)Assess the significance of hazard profiles in relation to the effectiveness of management strategies( 12) AS :Spec 2: a)Name 1 stage of the hazard management cycle (1) b) Study fig 1 in the resource booklet. i) Identify the % probability of lava flow reaching the locations shown(2) ii) Suggest 1 way that Mt Etna poses a hazard for people living in the town of Catania(3) A level Spec 1 b) Assess the importance of tectonic hazard profiles in understanding the severity of impacts resulting from earthquake events (12) Dynamic Learning (p.85) b) Evaluate the significance of development in the effective response to tectonic mega- hazards ( 12) Pearson (p.90) Assess the reasons why earthquakes create more disasters than volcanic eruptions (12) Hodder Revision (p.95) Assess the importance of prediction and forecasting in the successful management of tectonic disasters (12) EQ 3: How successful is the management of tectonic hazards and disasters? Understanding the complex trends and patterns for tectonic
disasters helps explain differential impacts Tectonic disaster trends since 1960 in the context of overall disaster trends. Research into the accuracy and reliability of the data to interpret complex trends Prediction and forecasting accuracy depend on the type and location of the tectonic hazard Tectonic mega- disasters can have regional or even global significance in terms of economic and human impacts (Asian Tsunami 2004, Icelandic volcano, 2010Japan tsunami 2011) Theories can be used to understand the predication, impacts and management of tectonic hazards The importance of different stages in the hazard management cycle :the role of emergency planners (players) Tectonic hazard impacts can be managed by a Strategies to modify the event (role of
planners, engineers) include land-use zoning, hazard-resistant design and engineering defences as well as diversion of lava flows variety of mitigation and adaptation strategies Strategies to modify vulnerability and resilience include high- tech monitoring, prediction, education, community preparedness and adaptation (role of forecasters- models forecasting disaster Concept of a multiple hazard zone : How hydrometeorological disasters can sometimes contribute to a tectonic disaster Use of Parks model to compare the response curve of hazard events, comparing areas at different stages of development Strategies to modify loss include emergency, short and longer term aid and insurance (role of players: NGOs and insurers) and the action of different communities themselves.
Typical A (and AS) level Style questions for Enquiry Question 3 AS Spec 1: Explain two reasons why the number of reported earthquakes has risen since 1960 (4) AS Spec 2: c) Explain two strategies that are used to modify vulnerability to volcanic hazards (4) d) Using a named location, explain how hydrometeorological hazards can contribute to a tectonic disaster (6) e) Assess how prediction can contribute to the management of tectonic hazards(12) AS May 2017: e) Assess whether development and governance are the most important factors in understanding the scale of tectonic disasters (12) A Level Spec 1: b) Assess the importance of governance in the successful management of tectonic mega-disasters (12) Dynamic Learning (p.80): b) Assess the factors that influence the management of the impacts of earthquakes in countries at different levels of development (12)
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