Terrorism and The Muslim Brotherhood

Terrorism and The Muslim Brotherhood

Terrorism and The Muslim Brotherhood God is our purpose, the Prophet our leader, the Quran our constitution, jihad our way and dying for Gods cause our supreme objective. Hassan al-Banna founder of the Muslim Brotherhood http://sites.google.com/site/mbterrorism/ Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 1 Supplemental Information: Islamic Terror Organizations Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved

2 Foreign Terrorist Organizations Feb. 2004 Report by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) described 36 foreign organizations that represent a terror threat to the US. Roughly half are radical Islamic terror organizations http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL32223.pdf Comprehensive list of terrorist attacks on all nations can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorist_attacks Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 3 Al Qaeda (the Base) Founded by Osama bin Laden and Ayman al Zawahiri between 1988 and 1991 to train Arab fighters for the Afghan war.

Declared war on the US in 1996 Issued fatwas in 1996 and 1998 calling Muslims to kill US and allied civilians and military until they withdraw support of Israel and remove military forces from Islamic countries. Funded and ran training camps for mujahideen and terrorist agents for all Muslim terrorist organizations, for operations in the Egypt, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Chechnya, Bosnia, UK, Spain, Oceana and the U.S. Attacks on the US: 1992 Somalia; 1996 - Khobar Towers, Saudi Arabia; 1998 - US Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania; 2000 USS Cole in Yemen; 2001 New York, Washington DC, Pennsylvania Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 4 Egyptian Islamic Jihad Also known as The Islamic Group or Al Jihad or Al-Gamaa al

Islamiya Egyptian group whose goal is to overthrow the Egyptian government and establish an Islamic republic. Involved in 1981 assassination of Egyptian president Anwar Sadat Sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman is the spiritual leader, jailed in the US in 1996 for planning the 1993 World Trade Center bombing Aug. 1993 attempted assassination of Egyptian Interior Minister. Nov. 1993 attempted assassination of Egyptian Prime Minister Atef Sidqi. One school girl is killed, 28 people wounded. 1995 attempted assassination of Egyptian President Hasni Mubarak Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 5 Egyptian Islamic Jihad cont.

Killed hundreds of civilians, dozens of tourists, and over 100 Egyptian policemen in a terror campaign in the 1990s Led by Ayman al-Zawahiri in the 1980s and 1990s; merged with Osama bin Ladens followers to form Al Qaeda in the early 1990s. Responsible for many violent attacks, including the Nov. 1997 Luxor massacre that killed 58 foreign tourists and four Egyptians Sub-group: Taleh e Fatah (Vanguards of Conquest) or Jihad Talaat al-Fath ("Holy War of the Vanguard of the Conquest") also led by Ayman al Zawahiri. Participated in Nov. 1997 Luxor Massacre planned by Ayman al Zawahiri and his Al-Jihad group Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 6 Hamas

Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. Founded by Abdullah Azzam, who taught Osama bin Laden at Abdul Aziz University in Jedda. Azzam was supported by Saudi intelligence when he led an Arab resistance effort (the Afghan Service Bureau) in Peshawar during the Afghan war. Bin Laden initially working for Azzam. Hamas raises funds in Saudi Arabia, has madrassas in Yemen, and gun-running networks in Sudan. A violent offshoot of Hamas is the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, which was supported by Osama bin Laden. Hamas is a rival to the secular PLO. Bin Laden stated he hated Yassir Arafat and the PLO because of their secular nature. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 7

Hezbollah / Hizballah (Party of God) Radical Shiite organization which started operating in Lebanons civil war in the 1980s. Iran supports Hezbollah and uses it as the terrorist arm of the Iranian revolution. Hezbollah kidnapped Americans in Lebanon in the 1980s In 1983 its suicide bombers blew up the US embassy in Beirut killing the CIA's experts on the Middle East, and the Marine barracks killing 241 Marines. In 1983 they attacked the barracks of French paratroopers in Beirut killing 58. Highjacked TWA Flight 847 in 1985 Bombed the Israeli Embassy in Argentina (March 1992), and the Argentine-Jewish Mutual Association in Buenos Aires (July 1994) killing 85 and injuring 200. It waged war against Israel in Lebanon and northern Israel in the summer of 2006 Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved

8 Armed Islamic Group (GIA) Founded in Algeria following the 1991 elections which were canceled when the government feared the Islamic Salvation Front would be elected. In 2000 hundreds of civilians were killed each month; entire villages were slaughtered in a single night. Continues active operatives in Algeria and Europe, notably Belgium and France. Responsible for 1994 Paris metro bombing and 1994 airline hijacking which attempted to destroy the plane over Paris or crash it into a high value site in the city. Also responsible for bombings across France in 2005 Supported by Iran and Sudan Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved

9 Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) Also known as Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb GSPC is a well-organized radical Islamic group in Algeria that aims to establish an Islamic state based on Islamic law. GSPC formed when an 600 militants split from the Armed Islamic Group in 1996 during the bloody Algerian civil war. GSPC renounced GIAs massacres of civilians and promised a better organized campaign against the government. By 1998, GSPC eclipsed GIA in power and popularity. By 2000, they took over GIAs networks in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. GSPC had numerous plots in Europe. In Algeria, the group was weakened by a government crackdown; GSPC remains the most effective armed group remaining in Algeria. Continues attacks on soldiers and officials

Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 10 Jemaah Islamiyah (Indonesia) Goal is a strict Islamic state in place of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the southern Philippine islands, and southern Thailand. Sent Indonesians and Malaysians to Afghanistan in 1985 to train in bin Ladens camps and fight the Soviets Bombings in Jakarta, Manila, and Thailand in 2000. December 2000 attacks against Christian churches in Indonesia, and aborted plots to bomb Western embassies in Singapore. Oct. 12, 2002 nightclub bombing in Bali killed 200; plot to attack US interests in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Cambodia on the anniversary of 9/11 2003 Marriott hotel bombing killed 14 wounded 148 2004 Australian embassy in Jakarta 2005 Bali bombing

Linked to dozens of bombings in the southern Philippines, usually with the Abu Sayeff Group (ASG); continues strikes against Western targets Hambali, JIs chief of operations and was arrested in mid-August 2003. The CIA has dubbed him Asias bin Laden. He fought beside bin Laden at the battle of Jaji in 1987. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 11 Abu Sayyef Terror group active in the Philippines Responsible for April 1995 attacks on the island of Mindanao that killed 63 and took 53 hostages. Dozens of other bombings in early 1990s in concert with Jemaah Islamiyah including kidnappings, and executions of Filipino Christians. In Apr. 2000, a $25 million ransom was paid for three French Journalists.

In May 2000 ASG kidnapped 20 tourists including three Americans, one of which they beheaded US sent military advisors in Jan. 2001 which decimated ASG membership, reversed civilian support for ASG and led to release of hostages (one was killed along with a Philippine nurse). US forces departed in July 2001. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 12 Jaish-e-Mohammed (Army of Mohammed) Khaddam ul-Islam Goal: end Indian rule in disputed Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), expel Indian security forces from the region, and unite J&K with Pakistan. JEM targets Indian officials, government buildings, soldiers including non-Muslim civilians in Pakistan and in J&K. JEM executed a suicide bomb attack outside the J&K state

assembly building on Oct. 2001, killing up to 38 people. Stormed the Indian Parliament in Dec. 2001 killing 10 Jan. 2002 Pakistan banned JEM and several other groups. September 2003 crackdowns resulted in the deaths of 555 JEM militants including the operations chief, and second in command. JEM implicated in the Feb. 2002 kidnapping and beheading of journalist Daniel Pearl in Karachi. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 13 Harakat ul Mujahidin (HUM) Also known as Jamiat ul-Ansar; Party of the Volunteers; Movement of Holy Warriors; formerly Harakat -ul-Ansar. Pakistan-based Islamic group that seeks to wrest Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) from Indian control and create an Islamic state encompassing Pakistan and J&K

HUM was founded to fight in Afghanistan against the Soviets. After the Soviet pullout, HUM focused on J&K Founder Fazlur Rehman Khalil signed bin Ladens 1998 fatwah to attack on Americans and Western targets. June 14, 2002 bombing of the U.S. Consulate in Karachi that killed 11 people Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 14 Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) PIJ is a highly active Palestinian organization founded in 1979 by Palestinian students in Egypt. PIJs founding members were once members of the Muslim Brotherhood, but split from the group because of what they perceived as a moderate stance within the group and a diluted focus on the Palestinian issue.

The founding members were inspired by the Iranian revolution and espoused several of its tenets. PIJs sole focus is to defeat the state of Israel (using violence as a legitimate means) and establish an Islamic Palestinian state. Since the start of the second Intifada (Sep. 2000), PIJ conducted suicide bomb attacks against Israeli civilian and military targets throughout Israel and Palestinian territories that killed more than 100 people. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 15 Other Islamic Terror Groups National Islamic Front operates in the Sudan Hizballah Al-Hijaz - Saudi Hezbollah Hezbi Islami (Islamic Party) Founded and led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, established in Pakistan in 1975 to fight the Soviets in

Afghanistan Al Qaeda Islamic Maghreb previously known as the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat, GSPC, and also known as the Group for Call and Combat ; participated in Sept 11, 2012 attack on US consulate and CIA annex in Benghazi, Libya; active in Algeria, northern Mali, and Chad Ansar al Shariah Formed during the Libyan uprising, participated in Sept 2012 attack on US consulate and CIA annex in Benghazi, Libya MUJAO (Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa) Mauritanian offshoot of AQIM, active in northern Mali Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 16 Fund Raising Organizations

International Islamic Relief Organization IIRO funds madrassas and training of suicide bombers, supported by members of the Saudi royal family including the wife of the Saudi ambassador to the U.S. IIRO admitted to sending $60M to the Taliban. Total donations and spending are not known. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 17 Fund Raising Organizations Muslim World League Based in Jedda, Saudi Arabia. Prints and distributes millions of Korans, funds the building of new mosques, and distributes Wahhabistoriented texts. Facilitates coordination of conservative Islamic organizations in Southern Asia. CAIR Counsel on American Islamic Relations. Defends non-assimilation, has not renounced

terrorism. Operates in the U.S. and Canada Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 18 Political Terror Groups

Use terror for territorial self-determination or political reasons, not necessarily radical religious motivations Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigade - expel Israeli soldiers and settlers from the West Bank and Gaza, and to establish a Palestinian state. The group has recruited young militants espousing Islamic fundamentalism. Palestinian Liberation Front - committed to destruction of Israel and the establishment of a Palestinian state Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - The PFLP seeks destruction of Israel, and establishment of a socialist Palestinian state and the end to American influence in the region. Abu Nidal Organization see next slide Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Tamil Tigers (Sri Lanka) Shining Path (Peru) Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 19

Abu Nidal Organization Established 1974 to destroy Israel and create a Palestinian state. Splintered from PLO following PLO acceptance of Israeli-Palestinian co-existence. Killed more than 900 people in 20 countries, mainly Jews and moderate Arabs. Acted on behalf of ANO state sponsors (Iraq, Syria, Libya). In the 1970s and 1980s ANO executed attacks in 20 countries, including Austria, Belgium, Egypt, France, Greece, India, Italy, Jordan, Kuwait,

Lebanon, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sudan, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom. Assassinated a senior Jordanian diplomat in 1994; the PLOs second-incommand in 1991; and commander of Western Sector Fatah forces 1991. Dec. 1985 simultaneous attacks on Israeli airline counters in Rome and Vienna killed 18, injured 111. 1974-1980 ANO headquarters were in Baghdad; attacked Syrian and PLO targets on behalf of Iraq. Later relocated to Syria, then Libya, and finally Lebanon. Today, a few hundred ANO militants reside in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon. They are not affiliated with other terror groups. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 20 1972 1979 1980-1984

1985-1990 1993 1994 1995 1996-1998 2000-2002 2003-2004 2005-2007 Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 21 Terrorist Strikes September 1972: Palestinian militants from the Black September Organization kill 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Summer Olympics. Some accounts connect PLO support to Black September.

Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 22 1979 Terrorist Strikes part 1 Feb. 11: Shah of Iran falls, replaced by exiled Muslim cleric Ayatollah Khomeini. Feb. 14: American Ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs, is kidnapped and killed in a Kabul hotel. Nov. 5: 49 Americans taken hostage from the embassy in Tehran by Iranian students. They are released in January 1981. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 23

1979 Terrorist Strikes part 2 Nov. 20: Hundreds of followers of Mohammed Abdullah Al Qahtani, self-proclaimed Savior of Islam, occupy the Grand Mosque in Mecca killing dozens of worshipers. The death toll reaches hundreds as Saudi forces balk and French commandos are called to secure the Mosque three months later. 60 public beheadings. Nov. 21: American embassy in Pakistan is burned by students, killing a U.S Marine an Airman and two Pakistani workers. One hostage was taken and released. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 24 1982-1983 Terrorist Strikes part 1 July 19, 1982: David Dodge, acting President of the American University in Beirut, is kidnapped and released

later that year. Scores more are kidnapped by Hezbollah in Lebanon in the following years. Aug. 11 1982: Bomb explodes on Pan Am 830 killing one. This may have been a test for synchronized bombs on several planes. April 18, 1983: U.S. embassy in Lebanon is bombed by Iran. Many of the CIAs best minds on the Middle East are killed. Oct. 23, 1983: 241 Marines killed by Hezbollah suicide truck bomb attack on barracks in Lebanon Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 25 1983-1984 Terrorist Strike part 2 Dec. 12, 1983: Iran bombs the U.S. and French embassies in Kuwait.

Mar. 16, 1984: Hezbollah kidnaps and tortures Bill Buckley, Beiruts CIA Chief. He died around June 3. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 26 1985-1989 Terrorist Strikes June 1985: Lebanese terrorists (possibly Hezbollah) hijack TWA 847, killing a U.S. Navy diver Oct. 1985: Palestinian terrorist Abu Abbas hijacks the Achille Lauro and murders American, Jewish tourist Leon Klinghoffer. Abbas escapes to Baghdad with Egyptian and Italian assistance. Dec. 1985: Members of Palestinian Abu Nidal organization kill 19, including 5 Americans, in attacks at El Al ticket counters in Rome and Vienna. Feb. 1, 1986: CIA establishes a Counterterrorist Center

Sept. 5, 1986: Pan Am 73 hijacked to Karachi, 22 killed Dec. 21, 1988: Pan Am 103 downed over Locherbie by Libyan agents; 270 killed. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 27 1990-1993 Terrorist Strikes Aug. 2, 1990: Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait. Nov. 5, 1990: Meir Kahane, founder of Jewish Defense League, killed in NY by early elements of Al Qaeda Jan. 25, 1993: Pakistani Mir Amal Kasi attacks CIA headquarters, killing 2, escapes to Pakistan and disappears. Feb. 26, 1993: Kuwaiti Ramzi Yousef attacks the World Trade Center, kills six, injures a thousand; escapes to Pakistan. Arrested 1995; revealed his goal was 250,000 dead. In 1994 he planned to assassinate President Clinton

with IED and phosgene gas during visit to Manila. Constructed several devices and helped plan simultaneous downing of 10 U.S. airliners over the Pacific. A fire in his Manila apartment during chemical tests uncovered the plot and vital materials. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 28 1994 Terrorist Strikes Aug: terrorists trained in Afghanistan kill three Spanish tourists in a hotel in Marrakesh Dec: Four terrorists from the Armed Islamic Group hijack an Air France airliner and plan to crash it into the Eifel tower. French commandos kill the terrorists in Marseilles. July 18: Hezbollah bombs the Israeli cultural center in Buenos Aires killing 85 and injuring 200.

1994: Bombings in the Paris metro are traced to Algerian terrorists trained in Afghan camps Armed Islamic Group Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 29 1995 Terrorist Strikes April: Filipino guerillas swearing allegiance to the Afghan mujahedin leader Abdurrab Rasul Sayyaf sack the Mindanao island town of Ipili killing 63 and taking 53 hostages, later killing a dozen of them. April: Oklahoma City bombing kills 168, injures hundreds June 26: Islamic Group guerillas attempt to assassinate President Hosni Mubarak in Ethiopia. Nov. 13: A car bomb in Riyadh kills 5 and injures 34

Americans. Dec: Islamic terrorists destroy the Egyptian embassy in Islamabad killing 15 and injuring 80. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 30 1996-1999 Terrorist Strikes June 26, 1996: Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia are attacked by a fuel tanker bomb killing 20, injuring 372. Terrorists were identified as members of Hizballah AlHijaz (Saudi Hezbollah). Nov. 17 1997: 62 tourists massacred in Luxor, Egypt by Al Gamaa al-Islamiya and Jihad Talaat al-Fath Aug. 7, 1998: Suicide bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania kill 224 and wound 4085. The attacks were funded, planned, and ordered by bin Laden. In retaliation, the U.S. attacked a large al Qaeda

meeting at Zashar Kili on Aug. 20 with submarinelaunched Tomahawk missiles, and simultaneously struck a chemical factory near Khartoum, Sudan. Dec. 14, 1999: Ahmed Ressam is arrested in Port Angeles, WA while trying to smuggle explosives for a millenium bombing of the Los Angeles airport. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 31 2000 to 2001 Terrorist Strikes Aug. 1998 to Nov. 2000: President Clinton declines to attack probable bin Laden locations. Oct. 12, 2000: USS Cole attacked by suicide boat while in port, Aden, Yemen. 17 killed, 39 wounded. Sept. 9, 2001: Ahmad Shah Massoud, leader of the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan, is assassinated by Al Qaeda suicide bombers. Sept. 11, 2001: Al-Qaeda flies planes into the Pentagon,

World Trade Center and attempts to fly into another Washington DC, target. October 2001: U.S. Invades Afghanistan and removes the Taliban Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 32 2002 Terrorist Strikes Oct. 12: Bali, Indonesia. Three-bomb attack by Jemaah Islamiyah kills 202 injures 209. Oct. 23: 40 Chechen terrorists killed after keeping 120 hostages in a Moscow theater for three days. Dec. 21: Islamic extremists derail a train and kill 20 in India Dec. 27: Truck bomb kills 83 at Chechen parliament in Grozny.

Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 33 2003 Terrorist Strikes May 12: Al Qaeda bombs U.S. expatriate housing compounds in Saudi Arabia killing 26, injuring 160 in Riyadh. May 12: Truck bomb attack on government building in Chechnya kills 59 May 14: 16 killed in suicide bombing at religious festival in Chechnya May 16: Al Qaeda bomb attacks in Casablanca kill 41, injure over 100 Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved

34 2004 Terrorist Strikes Sept. 1-3, 2004: Beslan, Russia school attack. 363 killed, hundreds injured. Chechen terrorist Shamil Basayev took responsibility. Russian investigation uncovered links to al Qaeda. Mar. 11, 2004: Coordinated commuter train bombings in Madrid kill 191 and injure 2050. Al Qaeda or an affiliate group, Abu Nayaf al-Afghani, are responsible. 2004: Australian embassy in Bali, Indonesia is bombed by Jemaah Islamiah, an organisation linked to al Qaeda Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 35 2005-2007 Terrorist Strikes

Oct. 1, 2005: Bali, Indonesia. Three suicide bombers from Jemaah Islamiah, an organisation linked to AlQaeda, kill 20 and injure 129. Nov. 9, 2005: Al Qaeda simultaneously attacks three hotels in Amman, Jordan, killing 60. Feb. 27, 2007: Attempted assassination of Vice President Cheney at Baghram air base, Afghanistan April 11, 2007: Al Qaeda Islamic Maghreb kills 23 in Algiers April 12, 2007: Al Qaeda in Iraq and its proxy, the Islamic State of Iraq attack the Iraqi parliament inside the Green Zone in Baghdad, and destroy the Jisr alHadeed bridge. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 36 Hezbollah / Hizballah

Hezbollah is funded and controlled by Iran. It began as a faction in the Lebanese civil war and in the 1980s it began operating as a proxy force for the Iranian Revolutionary Guard. Imad Mugniyah, the head of Hezbollahs security service planned the 1983 US embassy and marine barracks suicide bombings Beirut that killed more than 300 and the attack on the French paratrooper barracks in Beirut that killed 58. In 1992 Imad Mugniyah trained Al Qaeda troops in Khartoum in exchange for weapons, at Osama bin Ladens invitation. Established in 1982 by Lebanese Shiite clerics and ideologically inspired by the Iranian revolution, Hizballah was formed in response to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon. The group was the principal supporter of anti-Western

and anti-American terrorism in the 1980s and is directed by its Majlis alShura, or Consultative Council. Since 1992, Hizballah has participated in Lebanons political system and in 2003 held 12 seats, and was elected to the majority in 2006. Other terrorist activities include the highjacking of TWA Flight 847 (1985), the detention of 18 American hostages in Lebanon throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the bombing of Israels Embassy in Argentina (March 1992), and the bombing of the Argentine-Jewish Mutual Association in Buenos Aires (July 1994). During its 15-year military insurgency campaign against Israeli and Israelialigned forces in Southern Lebanon, Hizballah carried out rocket attacks that killed Israeli civilians. Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 37 Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan) A Pakistani branch of the Muslim Brotherhood Fundamentalist Islamic political party

also known as the Islamic Group or the Islamic Society. Founded 1941 by Maulana Abu Ala Maududi (Abul Alaa Maududi), author of Jihad in Islam who advocated a Leninist ideology. Has five separate organizations; no information found on terror activities. Abul Alaa Maududi Copyright 2008-2013 Robert D. Conway All Rights Reserved 38

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