The ABCs of behavior Why do students behave the way they do?
Collaboration for Effective Educator Development, Accountability, and Reform Course Enhancement Module on Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions: Part 1 (Introduction) H325A120003 CEM Overview Part 1: Introduction Part 2: Universal Intervention Part 3: Supplemental Intervention Part 4: Identifying Target Behaviors
Part 5: Intensive Intervention Part 1: Introduction Characteristics of Successful Schools, Teachers, and Students Linking Academic Instruction and Classroom Management Rationale for Addressing Behavior The ABCs of Behavior Students With Challenging Behaviors Outcomes for Students With Disabilities
Case Studies Note Part 1 uses content and resources from The National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII) www.intensiveintervention.org OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) www.pbis.org Characteristics of
Successful Schools, Teachers, and Students Activity - Successful Schools, Teachers, and Students Directions: 1.Move into your assigned group. Choose one person to be the recorder and one person to be the reporter. 2.Travel to each chart as directed, read the topic on the chart and record your ideas on the chart paper.
3.After you visit all three charts, return back to your original chart. 4.Read all of the additional ideas that have been added by the other teams and be ready to share out to the large group. Schools That Are Successful Create safe environments that promote learning and socialemotional growth Understand that students social behavior affects their academic
learning Integrate multiple tiers of evidencebased academic instruction and behavioral intervention to meet the needs of all students Teachers and Other School Staff Who Are Successful Focus on academic achievement for all students Are knowledgeable about evidence-based tools and practices Are positive, proactive problem-solvers
Anticipate and design evidence-based interventions that Maximize opportunities for each student to learn and achieve at high standards Prevent situations in which children are likely to experience an academic or behavioral challenge that interferes with their learning Students Who Attend Successful Schools Are likely to have higher academic achievement.
Are frequently given positive reinforcement. Are taught social expectations that are predictable and contextually relevant. Are acknowledged clearly and consistently for displaying positive behaviors. Are treated by others with respect and responsibility. Linking Academic Instruction and Classroom Management
Activity Four Corners 1. Each corner of the room represents the following: Corner 1 Totally agree Corner 2 Somewhat agree Corner 3 Disagree Corner 4 Undecided 2. After a statement is read, please go the corner that best reflects your thinking. Be ready to explain why you made this choice. 3. If you hear an opinion that changes your mind, move to the corner that best reflects your current
thinking. Principles of Effective Instruction Effective academic instruction Data-based decision making Effective behavioral
interventions Implemented with fidelity Positive school culture 1 Role of Instruction Effective teaching is associated not
only with academic success but also with reduced rates of problem behavior. (Lee, Sugai, & Horner, 1999; Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991) Building Successful Schoolwide Behavioral Systems Building successful schoolwide behavioral systems requires Investing in the whole school, not just students with problem behavior
Focusing on preventing the development and occurrence of problem behavior Using behavioral interventions that are based on evidence Reviewing behavioral data regularly to adapt school procedures to the needs of all students and their families Classwide Practices That Enhance School Success Classroom environment is well organized and supports student learning
Teachers establish and teach classwide behavioral rules and expectations Lessons are engaging at appropriate levels of difficulty Instruction is differentiated All students actively participate (Berliner, 1986; Brophy & Good, 1986; Kounin, 1970; Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering, 2003; Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001) Rationale for Addressing Behavior
Merriam-Websters Definition of Behavior 1 (a): the manner of conducting oneself 1 (b): anything that an organism does involving action and response to stimulation 1 (c): the response of an individual, group, or species to its environment Source: Merriam Websters Collegiate
Dictionary, 11th edition (2012). Students Behavior Influences Their Learning and Academic Performance Students with behavioral challenges have a higher rate of learning problems than the overall population Challenging behavior may reduce instructional time and influence teacher-student interactions
(Reid, Gonzalez, Nordness, Trout, & Epstein, 2004; Wehby & Kern, 2014) Students Learning and Academic Performance Influences Their Behavior Students who struggle academically are likelier to engage in Property destruction Frequent negative interactions with teachers
Poor peer relations Aggression (Reid, Gonzalez, Nordness, Trout, & Epstein, 2004; Wehby, Symons, & Shores, 1995) Common Reasons for Behavioral Problems It is a small group or classwide problem. The student has not learned the expected behavior. The student needs help performing the behavior in a new way or setting.
Inappropriate behavior helps the student avoid something he or she does not want to do (escape). Inappropriate behavior gets the student something (e.g., attention). Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ Long-Term Goals in Addressing Student Behavior Schools and teachers want to enable all students to achieve college and career ready standards.
Student learning is contingent upon student engagement. The ABCs of Behavior Why do students behave the way they do? Behavior Occurs for a Reason Most behaviors are learned Certain conditions or events may make a behavior more or less likely
to occur Behaviors are performed to obtain a desired outcome or goal Some behaviors occur without being learned. Some medical conditions may influence these automatic behaviors. ABCs of Behavior Antecedent Behavior
Consequence Antecedent An event that happens before the behavior Makes a behavior more intense or more likely to occur Immediate or delayed effect Examples of Antecedents
Fatigue Hunger Thirst Discomfort Some medical conditions may make these antecedents more common or affect what makes a student uncomfortable Examples of Antecedents Nature of social interactions Does the student struggle with
proximity, physical contact, or certain tones of voice? Amount and type of attention Is too much attention from adults or peers stressful for the student? Examples of Antecedents Past academic failure Task difficulty Pace of instruction Duration of engagement
Is the academic task reasonable in terms of the students Skills Confidence Ability to attend to instruction? Examples of Antecedents Change in environment or routine Some students will Unclear expectations need extra support learning
Limited structure or expectations for supervision different activities and settings Transitions Setting or time of day Behavior What a person does Observable Measurable
Consequence An event that happens after the behavior and affects future occurrences of that behavior Consequences Reinforcement increases or maintains the intensity or frequency of behavior Punishment decreases the
intensity or frequency of behavior The same event may be reinforcing or punishing for different students. Positive Versus Negative Positive consequences Something is added Negative consequences Something is removed Types of Consequences
Positive Punishment Reinforcement Add something to decrease behavior Add something to increase
behavior Negative Remove something to decrease behavior Remove something to increase behavior
Reinforcement What motivates or maintains behavior? Behavior may serve to Gain something Attention (adult or peer) Tangible item Activity Sensory stimulation Comment or declare Self-regulate
Escape or avoid Task (hard or boring) Person Reprimands Examples of Positive Reinforcement Desired attention or recognition Verbal praise Smile, high five, pat on back Award or certificate Social consequences
Letter or call home will not serve as Desired activity reinforcers for students who want to avoid attention Time with friends Extra time for computer or recess Leadership role
Examples of Positive Reinforcement Tangible items Edible items Prizes School supplies Sensory stimuli Sensory feedback may maintain some behaviors; this is more common for students with certain disabilities or health conditions.
Activity Be Positive! Table 1 Create a chart using words to praise a student for positive behavior. (Ex.: wonderful, marvelous etc.) Table 2 Create a chart using pictures to illustrate gestures to praise a student for positive behavior. (Ex.: thumps up, smile etc.) Table 3 - Create a list of tangible prizes to reinforce positive behaviors. (Ex.: stickers, pencils etc.) Table 4 - Create a list of intangible prizes to reinforce positive behavior. (Ex.: special guest
reader, extra recess time etc.) Reinforcers Should Be Access-controlled Inexpensive or free Easily dispensed Time-efficient Considerations for Positive Reinforcement Reinforcer effectiveness may be affected by
Individual preference Create a reinforcer survey or menu http ://www.jimwrightonline.com/php/jackp ot/jackpot.php Antecedents Practice: Why isnt this positive reinforcement? A. When Marcos waits in line to get his coat for recess, his teacher
gives him a thumbs up. B. When Susie puts her plate in the dishwasher without being asked, her mother does not nag her to do so. Susie starts putting her plates in the dishwasher more often. Negative Reinforcement Removing or avoiding something makes the behavior more likely to occur in the future. Aversive stimulus
Aversive event Example: Putting on your seatbelt to stop your car from beeping Practice: Examples of Negative Reinforcement Scenario Running hurt Sallys knees. She went to physical therapy and her knees got better. She continues to do her therapy every day.
The teacher decides students can skip their weekly math quiz if they turn in their homework. Homework completion skyrockets. A bored history student plays on his phone. The teacher sends him to the office. The student plays on his phone during the next class. Undesired stimulus
Reinforced behavior Practice: Examples of Negative Reinforcement Scenario Undesired stimulus Running hurt Sallys knees. She Pain
went to physical therapy and her knees got better. She continues to do her therapy every day. The teacher decides students can skip their weekly math quiz if they turn in their homework. Homework completion skyrockets. A bored history student plays on his phone. The teacher sends him to the office. The student plays on his phone during the next class.
Running hurt Sallys knees. She Pain went to physical therapy and her knees got better. She continues to do her therapy every day. The teacher decides students can Math quiz skip their weekly math quiz if they turn in their homework. Homework completion skyrockets. A bored history student plays on his phone. The teacher sends him
to the office. The student plays on his phone during the next class. Reinforced behavior Doing therapy exercises Turning in math homework
Practice: Examples of Negative Reinforcement Scenario Undesired stimulus Reinforced behavior Running hurt Sallys knees. She Pain
went to physical therapy and her knees got better. She continues to do her therapy every day. The teacher decides students can Math quiz skip their weekly math quiz if they turn in their homework. Homework completion skyrockets. Doing therapy exercises
A bored history student plays on his phone. The teacher sends him to the office. The student plays on his phone during the next class. Playing phone games during class Boredom/ participating
in undesired class Turning in math homework Consider the Effect on Behavior Remember Reinforcement has only occurred when the behavior is maintained or
increases in frequency or intensity Punishment has only occurred when the behavior becomes less frequent or intense Discussion Have you ever worked with a student who did not respond to typical reinforcement? Talk about these examples with a partner. Share with the group.
Are some examples common to certain disabilities? Positive Punishment The addition of an unfavorable outcome or event that decreases the future likelihood or intensity of the behavior Use thoughtfully Can quickly become ineffective if used inappropriately Need to increase desired behaviors
(do not use in isolation) Positive Punishment Examples Contingent exercise: After cursing, 10 jumping jacks Overcorrection: Consequence is repeatedly performing a behavior that corrects the results of the target behavior. Practice making appropriate requests
several times after taking another students materials Clean all desks after sticking gum under own desk Negative Punishment The removal or termination of something good or desirable that decreases The future intensity of the behavior The likelihood of the behavior occurring in the future
Most effective when Immediately follows the behavior Applied consistently Negative Punishment Examples Remove toy two children are fighting over Response cost: lose tokens for misbehavior Time out: lose access to positive
reinforcement for specified time Planned ignoring: withdrawal or removal of attention Combining Consequences Consequences dont have to be used in isolation! How can punishment be combined with positive reinforcement of the desired behavior? Examples from previous slides
Examples from your experience? Identify the Type of Consequence 1. When Alex makes faces at Jim, Jim makes faces back or tells the teacher, who reprimands Alex. The teacher and Jim start ignoring this behavior. Soon, Alex stops making silly faces. 2. Sally gets an A on her spelling test. The teacher puts a smileyface sticker on her test.
Combining the ABCs Antecedents Alter or predict effectiveness of consequences Behavior Teach expected behavior so it can be reinforced Consequences Make acceptable behaviors more
reinforcing than misbehavior Students With Challenging Behaviors Challenging Behavior Occurs in All Settings Students With Disabilities Throughout this presentation, we will highlight special considerations for
students with disabilities, and other cases in which individual differences should be taken into account. Students with disabilities that impact either learning or behavior are likelier to eventually struggle in the other area as well. Discussion: Behavior Across Disability Categories Review disability definitions from federal special education law (Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act 2004) Which categories have obvious behavior implications? How might other categories influence behavior? Handout #1: IDEA 2004 Disability Definitions Outcomes for Students With Disabilities Poor Outcomes for Students With Disabilities
Students with disabilities have a history of poor outcomes, compared with their non-disabled peers, in Academic achievement Involvement with criminal justice system Employment NAEP Reading Achievement Fourth Grade
Eighth Grade http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_math_2013/#/student-groups Students With Emotional Disturbances Likelier than other youth with disabilities to Be suspended or expelled Frequently change schools Receive school-based behavioral and mental health services
(Wagner & Cameto, 2004) National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 1 out of 3 students with disabilities has a discipline problem 4 out of 5 are either unemployed or work in low-paying jobs as young adults (Sanford et al., 2011)
Dropout Rates Status dropout rate (October 2009) Students with a disability: 16 percent Students without a disability: 8 percent 2005-2006 dropout rate for students with disabilities: All students with disabilities: 26 percent Emotional disturbance: 45 percent Learning disabilities: 25 percent Other health impaired: 23 percent
Intellectual disability: 22 percent (Chapman et al., 2011; Planty et al., 2008) Case Studies: Real-Life Stories of Four Students With Challenging Behaviors Four Students With Challenging Behaviors Chuck, a curious, highly verbal, and rambunctious sixyear-old boy with behavior disorders who received special education services in elementary school. Juanita, a charming but shy six-year-old Latina child
who was served as an at-risk student with Title 1 supports in elementary school. Fred, an inquisitive, resourceful 12-year-old student with traumatic brain injury who received special education services in middle school. Hui Lum, a bright, energetic 15-year-old young woman with cerebral palsy who was above average academically and received Section 504 accommodations in high school. Handout #2: Case Studies: Real-Life Stories of Four Students with Challenging Behaviors
Activity Case Study Discussion 1. Read the four case studies. 2. Decide which case study you would like to develop. Join your other group members. 3. In your groups, discuss the case study and answer questions 1-3 on chart paper. 4. Be ready to share your case study recommendations with the class. 5. After all groups have shared out, discuss
the answer to question 4 collectively. Guiding Questions 1. What were the students behavioral challenges? 2. What was the behavioral intervention(s) that each student received? 3. What were the behavioral outcomes for each student after receiving the behavioral intervention? 4. Discuss the similarities and differences in the answers to the above three
questions for each of the four students in the case studies. Key Web Resources on Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions and Systems OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) http:// www.pbis.org/default.aspx National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII) http://www.intensiveintervention.org/ IRIS Center http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/
Evidence Based Intervention Network http://ebi.missouri.edu/ Floridas Positive Behavior Support Project http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/index.cfm
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