The American Journey

The American Journey

Chapter Introduction Section 1: The Articles of Confederation Section 2: Convention and Compromise Section 3: A New Plan of Government Visual Summary The Articles of Confederation Essential Question How effective was government under the Articles of

Confederation? Convention and Compromise Essential Question Why is the Constitution a document of compromises? A New Plan of Government Essential Question What ideas and features are found in the United States Constitution?

How effective was government under the Articles of Confederation? Reading Guide Content Vocabulary constitution petition

bicameral ordinance republic depreciate

Academic Vocabulary abandon clause Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events Articles of Confederation John Adams

How difficult is it to get a group of your friends to agree on what movie to watch or game to play? A. Very difficult C. Somewhat easy A

0% 0% B D. Very easy A

B C D 0% 0% D

A. B. C. D. C B. Somewhat difficult

From Independent States to a Republic The Articles of Confederation created a weak central government and strong state governments. From Independent States to a Repu In May 1776, the Continental Congress

blic asked each state to adopt a state constitution. (cont.) Fearing a powerful single ruler, most states divided government functions between a governor and a bicameral legislature.

Capitals of the United States From Independent States to a Repu Americans agreed that their country should be a republic; however, they could notblic (cont.)

agree on the organization and powers of their new republic. After much debate, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation in November 1777. The Articles of Confederation

From Independent States to a Repu After New York, Virginia, and other states abandoned land claims west of the blic Appalachian Mountains, all 13 states approved the Articles.

(cont.) The Articles did not provide a government strong enough to handle the problems facing the United States. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress could do which of the following?

A. Regulate trade C. Impose taxes 0% B D. Conduct foreign affairs

A 0% A B C D

0% 0% D A. B. C. D.

C B. Force citizens to join the army New Land Policies As people moved west, the country needed a process for new states

joining the Union. New Land Policies (cont.) In 1784 Congress divided the western territory into self-governing districts that could petition Congress for statehood when the number of people in a district reached the population of the smallest existing state. In 1785 the Confederation Congress passed

an ordinance that established a procedure for surveying and selling the western lands north of the Ohio River. New Land Policies (cont.) The Northwest Ordinance, passed in 1787, created a single Northwest Territory out of the lands north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River.

The Northwest Ordinance contained a clause that was the first attempt to stop the spread of slavery in the United States. The Northwest Territory Which issue were people concerned about with the Ordinance of 1785? A. The spread of slavery

C. One person buying too much land 0% B D. Freedom of religion

A 0% A B C D

0% 0% D A. B. C. D.

C B. Lawless people moving into western lands Trouble on Two Fronts Financial problems and disputes with Britain and Spain revealed

serious weaknesses of the Confederation government. Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.) By 1781, the money printed during the Revolutionary War depreciated so far that it was almost worthless. The weakness of the federal government under the Articles of Confederation made it

impossible for the Congress to solve problems. The department of finance proposed a 5 percent tax on imported goods, but the plan was not unanimously approved by the states. Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.) John Adams was not able to negotiate

with the British because the states did not honor the promises made in the Treaty of Paris. Southern states blocked an agreement with Spain because the agreement did not include the right to use the Mississippi River. Americans began to agree that the country needed a stronger government.

Who honored all the promises they made in the Treaty of Paris? A. Both Britain and the United States C. Just the United States 0%

B 0% A D. Neither Britain nor the United States A

B C D 0% 0% D

A. B. C. D. C B. Just Britain

Why is the Constitution a document of compromises? Reading Guide Content Vocabulary depression proportional

manumission compromise Academic Vocabulary convention amend

Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events Shayss Rebellion James Madison Alexander Hamilton Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan Great Compromise Three-Fifths Compromise

In your experience, what is typically the best approach to use when faced with a disagreement? 0% C C. Accept the decisions of the

other side without argument B B. Attempt to reach a compromise A. A B. B

0% 0% C. C A A. Hold your ground no matter what A Call for Change

The government under the Articles of Confederation faced many problems. A Call for Change (cont.) After the Revolutionary War, the United States experienced a depression. Suffering American farmers revolted against government treatment they felt was unfair in

Shayss Rebellion. The Revolutionary War brought attention to the contradiction between the American battle for liberty and the practice of slavery. Framers of the Constitution A Call for Change (cont.) Between 1783 and 1804, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and New Jersey

passed laws that gradually ended slavery. Virginia passed a law that encouraged manumission, the freeing of individual enslaved persons. Which group organized the first American antislavery society? A. The Sons of Liberty B. The Daughters of Liberty

D. The Protestants 0% B A 0%

0% 0% D C. The Quakers A

B C D C A. B. C.

D. The Constitutional Convention National leaders reshape the government. The Constitutional Convention (cont.) In September 1786, Alexander Hamilton proposed calling a convention in

Philadelphia to discuss trade issues. Edmund Randolph introduced the Virginia Plan, which was largely the work of James Madison. The Virginia plan: Created a strong national government. Virginia and New Jersey Plans The Constitutional Convention (cont.)

Called for a two-house legislature, a chief executive chosen by the legislature, and a court system. Made the number of representatives in legislature proportional to the population of each state. Was unpopular with the small states. Virginia and New Jersey Plans

The Constitutional Convention (cont.) William Paterson proposed the New Jersey Plan, which was designed to simply amend the Articles of Confederation. Virginia and New Jersey Plans Who presided over the meetings at

the Constitutional Convention? A. John Hancock B. James Madison D. Benjamin Franklin 0% B

A 0% 0% 0% D

C. George Washington A B C D C

A. B. C. D. Compromise Wins Out A new Constitution is adopted. Compromise Wins Out (cont.)

On June 19, the states voted to work toward a national government based on the Virginia Plan that also satisfied the small states. Roger Sherman of Connecticut suggested a compromise for determining representation that came to be known as the Great Compromise. Compromise Wins Out (cont.)

The Three-Fifths Compromise counted each enslaved person as three-fifths of a free person for both taxation and representation. To keep the Southern states in the nation, Northerners agreed that the Congress could not interfere with the slave trade until 1808. George Mason proposed a bill of rights to be included in the Constitution, but his proposal

was defeated. Compromise Wins Out (cont.) On September 17, 1787, the delegates assembled in Philadelphia to sign the Constitution. According to the Great Compromise, in which house would each state be

represented by two members? A. The House of Representatives A. A B. B A

0% 0% B B. The Senate What ideas and features are found in the United States Constitution?

Reading Guide Content Vocabulary federalism judicial branch legislative branch

checks and balances executive branch amendment Electoral College Academic Vocabulary

tradition reside Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events John Locke Baron de Montesquieu

How effective do you feel the present form of American government is? A. Very effective B. Somewhat effective D. Very ineffective 0% B

A 0% 0% 0% D

C. Somewhat ineffective A B C D C

A. B. C. D. Roots of the Constitution As the Framers wrote the Constitution, they borrowed ideas

from other political systems and philosophers of the Enlightenment. Roots of the Constitution (cont.) Although a uniquely American document, the Constitution has roots in many other civilizations and their traditions. The English Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights of 1689 provided models for

the Americans. The Delegates Talk Roots of the Constitution (cont.) The Framers of the Constitution also believed in the ideas promoted by European writers of the Enlightenment such as John Locke and

Baron de Montesquieu. Federalism, or sharing power between the federal and state governments, is one of the distinctive features of the United States government. Roots of the Constitution (cont.) Under the new federal system, the Constitution became the final and supreme

authority. The idea of protecting peoples natural rights was reflected in the work of which of the following? A. English philosopher John Locke 0%

B 0% A D. Italian philosopher Niccol Machiavelli 0%

0% D C. King George III A B C

D C A. B. C. D.

B. French writer Baron de Montesquieu The New Government The Constitution divides and limits power among three branches of government. The New Government (cont.)

Montesquieus idea of a division of powers led the Framers to divide the federal government into three branches. The legislative branch is composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The powers of the legislative branch include: collecting taxes coining money

regulating trade The New Government (cont.) declaring war making laws The executive branch is headed by the president, who is elected by the Electoral College. The president:

serves as commander in chief of the armed forces conducts relations with foreign countries serves a four-year term The New Government (cont.) The judicial branch is the nations court system. The nations judicial power resides in one

supreme Court and any other lower federal courts that the Congress might establish. The Framers built in a system of checks and balances that prevents any single branch from dominating the government. Under which branch of government are laws made?

A. The legislative branch B. The executive branch 0% C A 0%

B C. The judicial branch A. A B. B C.0%C

Debate and Adoption After a much heated debate, the states ratified the Constitution. Debate and Adoption (cont.) Before the Constitution could go into effect, nine states had to ratify it. Supporters of the Constitution, called Federalists, included George Washington

and Benjamin Franklin. People who opposed the Constitution, called Antifederalists, included Patrick Henry. Perhaps the strongest criticism of the Constitution was that it lacked a bill of rights to protect individual freedoms. Debate and Adoption (cont.) Virginia ratified the Constitution after being

assured that it would include a bill of rights amendment. Which of the following was an Antifederalist? A. George Washington B. John Jay 0%

D A 0% A B C

D0% C D. Alexander Hamilton B C. Patrick Henry

A. B. C. D. 0% Section Transparencies Menu Daily Test Practice Transparency 71

Select a transparency to view. Section Transparencies Menu Daily Test Practice Transparency 72 Select a transparency to view. Section Transparencies Menu Daily Test Practice Transparency 73

Lesson Transparency 7A Lesson Transparency 7C Select a transparency to view. constitution a list of fundamental laws to support a government

bicameral consisting of two houses, or chambers, especially in a legislature republic a government in which citizens rule through elected representatives petition

a formal request ordinance a law or regulation depreciate to fall in value abandon

give up clause a condition added to a document depression a period of low economic activity and widespread unemployment

manumission the freeing of some enslaved persons proportional to be the same as or corresponding to compromise agreement between two or more sides in which each side gives up

some of what it wants convention formal meeting amend to alter; improve federalism

the sharing of power between federal and state governments legislative branch the branch of government that makes the nations laws executive branch the branch of government, headed by

the president, that carries out the nations laws and policies Electoral College a special group of voters selected by their states voters to vote for the president and vice president judicial branch

the branch of government, including the federal court system, that interprets the nations laws checks and balances the system in which each branch of government has a check on the other two branches so that no one branch becomes too powerful

amendment an addition to a formal document such as the Constitution tradition cultural beliefs and practices reside

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