The Beliefs of Islam

The Beliefs of Islam

The Beliefs of Islam Copyright Clara Kim 2007. All rights reserved. Pneumonic Device

I.S.L.A.M.I.C. Islams Holy Book The Quran or Koran contains the

teachings revealed to Muhammad the prophet of Allah Started in the Middle East Islam began

in Saudi Arabia, in the Middle East 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. Laws = The 5

Pillars of Islam Faith in Allah Prayer 5 times a day facing Mecca Giving alms to the poor (charity) Fasting during Ramadan

Make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in their lifetime llah Allah is the Islamic name for

GOD Those who follow Allah are called MUSLIMS Muhammad

Muhammad is the founder of Islam His teachings are written in the Koran Islam is Monotheistic

Name another religion we have studied that is monotheistic = Cities that are

holy Mecca Muhammad was born here and is where

the KAABA is located ities that are holy

Medina This is the city where Muhammad started Islam

Cities that are holy Jerusalem This is where Muhammad left to heaven

from Kaaba Is a large cube building

It is the holiest place in Islam This is the building Muslims face during prayer

Islam and Geograph Copyright Clara Kim 2007. All rights reserved. Deserts Only a small strip of fertile land in

south of Saudi Arabia Few oases The rest is Desert Bedouins

Nomads who live in the desert Organized into tribes and clans Clans give security and support since they live in

extreme conditions Defended themselves from other clans who wanted water, grazing territory, livestock or food supplies

Islamic Way of Life Bedouin valued Courage Loyalty to family

Warrior skills This would lead to Islamic way of life Trade Routes

Many trade routes connected Arabia to major ocean and land trade routes Extreme south of the peninsula To the Byzantine in the north Caravan routes went to the Silk Roads in the east

Transported spices to the west Mecca Located in Saudi Arabia Important stop on trade routes During holy months, caravans

stopped in Mecca and this brought religious pilgrims who came to worship at the Kaaba The Spread Of Islam

100% Islam Crisis Muhammad dies in

632 Muslims now had to find a new leader Muhammad did not name a successor

Solution Muslims chose Abu-Bakr who was a loyal friend of Muhammad

He became the first Caliph Caliph (kay-lif) means successor or deputy

Abu-Bakr After Muhammad died some Muslims Refused to pay taxes Tried to say they were prophets themselves

Some tribes abandoned Islam In order to get things under control, Abu-Bakr used the military to get authority.

Muslim State By the time Abu died, the Muslim state controlled all of Arabia Under the next 2 caliphs they took: Syria

Lower Egypt Parts of Persia By 750 they controlled from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River (2x the width of the USA!!)

Muslim Troops They were successful because they were Willing to struggle till the end for Islam Well disciplined

Expertly commanded Enemies were not used to their style of warfare

Byzantine and Persia The Byzantine and Persia were already weak from long time conflicts The people welcomed Islam

Treatment of Conquered People Muslims were tolerant of conquered people

The Quran forbids forceful conversion They let others keep their religion if they paid a poll tax People who did not convert were not allowed to spread their own religions

Internal Conflict The 2 Caliphs after Abu Bakr were assassinated After their assassinations, the

elective system of choosing caliphs ended Umayyads

A family that came to power in 661 They set up a hereditary system of getting new leaders. They moved the

Muslim capital to Damascus Umayyads Surrounded

themselves with riches Some Muslims did not agree with the Umayyads and

split. The Split Muslims split into two groups: SHIA

Believe the leader should be a relative of Muhammad SUNNI

This group followed the Umayyad rule and followed Muhammads example. Sufi Another group who

reacted against the rich life of the Umayyads They led a life of poverty and devotion to the spiritual life of Islam

They meditated and chanted Focused on the Quran Muslim Achievement

Cultural Contributions Muslim Architecture Cultural Blending It is in Architecture that the greatest cultural

blending can be seen Already existing buildings were modified by Islamic Ideals Islamic Features: Multi-lobed interwoven arches Domes

Minarets Large courtyards Multi-lobed interwoven arches

Domes Dome of the Rock Located in Jerusalem Rock in the center is believed to be the spot from where

Muhammad ascended (rose) up to Heaven Minarets Towers built

from where Muslims are called to prayer 5 times a day

Large Courtyards Mosaics Artwork created using tiny pieces

of colored glass tiles Muslims use mosaics to create geometric decorations on

Mosques Arabic Alphabet Arabic was first used to translate the context of the Quran (The Holy Book of

Islam) Written from Right to Left Made up of 28 letters Calligraphy

Art of beautiful handwriting In Islam, showing living things in art was not allowed So artists turned to

calligraphy to express themselves. Turn to page 247 in books Universities

Muhammad strongly believed in the power of learning This led to support of places of learning by Muslim Leaders Qualified physicians = treat the sick

Mathematicians and Astronomers = Calculated times for prayer Math Arabic Numbers were adapted from India

Included the number ZERO Led to study of optics which helped develop lenses for telescopes and microscopes

Medical Advances The Comprehensive Book An encyclopedia of medicine using

knowledge from Greek, Syrian, Arabic and Indian sources of knowledge Science Relied on

Scientific observation and experimentation Translated and studied Greek texts

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