Darwinian Pseudoscience Dr. Heinz Lycklama [email protected] HeinzLycklama.com 3/17/14: Proof for the Big Bang! Space Ripples Reveal Big Bangs Smoking Gun NY Times Major Discovery: 'Smoking Gun for Universe's Incredible Big Bang Expansion Found Space.com Observations confirm inflation of early universe to cosmological sizes in early instant National Geographic @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 2 Origin of Life: Earth? Sea? Mars?
Science Daily, 4/25/14 how the first organisms on Earth could have become metabolically active. speculate how primitive cells learned to synthesize their organic components -- the molecules that form RNA, lipids and amino acids. suggest an order for the sequence that led to the origin of life. The Telegraph, 8/28/13 Life on Earth may have come from Mars on an asteroid, a scientist has claimed as he says it is the explanation for an unusual rock. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 3 Origin of Complex Life Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution
Evolution is a fact Natural selection accounts for the apparent design in life Theodosius Dobzhansky Richard Dawkins Non-coding DNA is junk DNA Many evolutionists @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 4 Generation Why? Why am I here? I hate to break it to you, but youve been lied to. Shocking right? From elementary school
on, we were all told that the universe created itself by chance, non-living chemicals formed into a living organism with complex genetic information and that through natural selection, this organism grew more complex over millions of years. Whats wrong with this account of history? Well none of these unproven assumptions are supported by scientific observation. Dan Greenup, Christian writer @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 5 Darwinian Pseudoscience 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What Is Science? Origins: Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design (ID) Pseudoscience of the Past New Atheists & Their Books Pseudoscience Today In:
a. b. c. 6. Origin of the Universe Origin of First Life Origin of Complex Life In Summary @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 6 1. What Is Science? Science definitions
Modern changes Operational science Origins science Naturalism (Scientism) Materialism What makes science possible? Pseudoscience Three Impossible Hurdles for Naturalism @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 7 Science Definitions Science knowledge discovered by experimentation, observation and objective investigation Use of Scientific Method (Bacon) Operational Science
UK Science Council definition Science is the pursuit of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence. [pursuit, rather than established] Origins Science Not testable, verifiable or falsifiable @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 8 Naturalism (Scientism) A belief denying that an event or object has a supernatural significance; specifically, the doctrine that scientific laws are adequate to account for all phenomena Even if all the data point to an intelligent designer, such an hypothesis is excluded
from science because it is not naturalistic. Dr. Scott Todd, KS Univ. Immunologist @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 9 Materialism A belief claiming that physical matter is the only or fundamental reality and that all organisms, processes, and phenomena can be explained as manifestations or interactions of matter We take the side of science in spite of the patent absurdity of some of its constructs, in spite of its failure to fulfill many of its extravagant promises of health and life, in spite of the tolerance of the scientific community for unsubstantiated just-so stories, because we have a prior commitment, a commitment to materialism. Richard Lewontin @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 10 What Makes Science Possible? *
Objective truth, e.g. John 14:6 The universe is real, e.g. Gen. 1 The universe is orderly, 1 Cor. 14:33 We can study Gods Creation Man has both material and immaterial aspects, Gen. 35:18; Matt. 10:28 Man can reason, made in Gods image, Gen. 1:26 * Sarfati (CMI) @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 11 Pseudoscience Oxford dictionary definition:
Scientific status of a Theory depends on falsifiability, refutability, testability (Popper) Theory T predicts O will not be observed O is observed Thus T is false With auxiliary hypotheses Beliefs/practices mistakenly regarded as being based on scientific method T + auxiliary hypothesis A predict O will not be observed O is observed Thus either T or A is false e.g. Fallacy in equating Adaptation to Evolution
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 12 Detecting Pseudoscience Signs of pseudoscience Emphasis on confirmation rather than refutation Use of vague or untestable claims Lack of testing by others Suppression of dissent Misleading language Attacking character of questioner Some examples of pseudoscience
Alchemy, Astrology Climate Change (aka AGW) Macro-Evolution @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 13 Three Impossible Hurdles For Naturalism 1. Origin of the universe 2. Origin of first life 3. Matter, energy, galaxies, stars, planets
Non-life to life (abiogenesis) Origin of complex life forms Macro-Evolution @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 14 2. Origins: Creation, Evolution and ID Creation Evolution
God created the universe and all life according to its kinds A fair result can be obtained only by fully stating and balancing the facts and arguments on both sides of each question. Charles Darwin Macro-Evolution Molecules -> Man Common Descent Mutations + Natural Selection Intelligent Design (ID) Irreducible & Specified Complexity Information implies an intelligent designer @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 15 The Meaning of Evolution 1. Artificial Selection
2. Change 3. Small variation within prescribed limits of complexity e.g., finch beaks by mutation and natural selection Macro-Evolution 5. Evolution of a coastline (random) Evolution of a car (designed) Micro-Evolution 4. Plant and animal breeding
Only 1, 2 and 3 have been observed Particles -> people Molecular Evolution 4 never observed! 5 is impossible! Origin of life assumes a mutating replicator @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 16 Natural Selection Selecting information that already exists Natural Selection Can
Decrease genetic information Allow organisms to survive better in a given environment Act as a selector Support Creations orchard of life Natural Selection Cannot @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Increase or generate new genetic information
Allow organisms to evolve from molecules to man Act as an originator Support evolutionary tree of life 17 3. Pseudoscience of the Past Evolution Of The Gaps The fossil record Human origins Haeckels embryos Vestigial organs Scopes Trial claims, 1925 Icons of Evolution, Jonathan Wells @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
18 Fossil Record Why is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain; and this is the most obvious and serious objection which can be urged against the theory. Charles Darwin, Origin of Species, 6th Ed., 1872, p. 413. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 19 Human Origins Fossils Neanderthal Man accepted as homo sapiens Java Man artificial construct Piltdown Man proven to be a hoax Nebraska Man an extinct pig Ramapithecus an orangutan Lucy make-believe creature
Unfortunately, the fossil record of pongids (apes) is nonexistent, making a glaring deficiency in the whole story. Steven Gould (Evolutionist) @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 20 Haeckels Embryos The embryos shown are (left to right) fish, salamander, tortoise, chick, pig, calf, rabbit and human representing 5 of the 7 vertebrate classes Haeckel omitted two classes of vertebrate (jawless and cartilaginous fishes) entirely, and half of the embryos are mammals - thus using a biased sample Discovered to be faked
drawings later on @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 21 Vestigial Organs Organs or structures that do not appear to have any function Oxford English Dictionary definition: Lost its function in the course of evolution Claimed by evolutionists to be left over from an evolutionary ancestor We must, however, acknowledge, as it
seems to me, that man with all his noble qualities ... still bears in his bodily frame that indelible stamp of his lowly origin. Charles Darwin Evidence for evolution Degenerate, atrophied List of 86 human organs considered to be vestiges by Wiedersheim in 1893 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 22 Examples of Vestigial Organs @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 23 Scopes Trial in 1925: Scientific Evidences Now Discredited Evidence why each was discredited
Neanderthal man fully human people Piltdown ape jaw joined to mans skull-cap Nebraska based on fossilized pigs tooth Embryonic recapitulation Haeckel forged embryo drawings Peppered moth colors shifts, now shifted back Vestigial organs not evolutionary leftovers, but part of our immune system Evidence still in textbooks, but admitted to be faulty! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 24 4. New Atheists & Their Books Dawkins, The God Delusion, 2008 Dawkins, The Greatest Show on Earth, 2009 Hawking, The Grand Design, 2010
Mazur, the Altenberg 16: An Expose of The Evolution Industry, 2010 Stenger, The Fallacy of Fine Tuning, 2011 Krauss, A Universe From Nothing, 2012 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 25 5a. Origin of the Universe The Big Bang (BB) Cosmic Inflation? Universe from nothing? Singularity
Quantum fluctuations Law of gravity Fine tuning The multiverse String theory In conclusion @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 26 More on the Big Bang Model Singularity exploded Quantum fluctuations CMBR issues Horizon problem Flatness problem
Monopole problem Cosmic inflation (?) Today [3/17/14] it seems that evidence for inflation may have been found Gravitational waves Density waves Expansion @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 27 Proof of Cosmic Inflation? Polarization in the CMBR?
Wave phenomenon, vibrating in all directions Electromagnetic waves can be polarized different ways Only one experiment today Evidence can fit static or expanding universe Cosmic inflation not a single theory If model changes, predictions change Inflation is just one of many free parameters Other mechanisms could mimic signal claimed 3/17/14 5/12/14
e.g. incorrect subtraction of foreground microwaves Some other physical mechanism may be at play @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 28 Inflation Theory Bites the (Space) Dust 1/30/15 Space.com announcement It is the announcement no one wanted to hear: The most exciting astronomical discovery of 2014 has vanished. Two groups of scientists announced today (Jan. 30) that a tantalizing signal which some scientists claimed was "smoking gun" evidence of dramatic cosmic expansion just after the birth of the universe was actually caused by something much more mundane: interstellar [space] dust.
CMB Background Data from Planck space observatory Planck Satellite Image @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 29 Cosmology & Philosophy I describe the history of the development of the standard big bang cosmology and how it is understood in terms of its philosophical underpinnings. The Cosmological Principle is explained as the major and essential assumption upon which it all depends. Due to this it has been required to invent unknown stuff, expansion of space, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, CMB radiation as afterglow of Big Bang, and Inflation. None of these are experimental observed in the lab. Dr. John Hartnett, Australian Creation Cosmologist That barrier to knowledge, some argue, is cosmologys Achilles heel. Cosmology may look like a science, but it isnt a science, says James Gunn of Princeton University, co-founder of the Sloan survey. A basic tenet of science is that you can do repeatable experiments, and you cant do that in cosmology. Dr. James Gunn, Princeton University, Astrophysicist @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
30 In Conclusion Origin of Universe Big Bang fudge factors explained by Inflation? Cosmic Inflation is unobserved Dark matter, dark energy, red shift quanta Horizon, Flatness, Monopole problems Smoking gun is model dependent Universe from nothing NO Fine tuning is real Multiverse is speculation
String Theory/M-Theory is not science Cosmology depends on unverifiable assumptions @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 31 5b. Origin of First Life The Latest News Ingredients For Life Abiogenesis Possible? How Did Life Begin? "The origin of life ... abounds with ... exotic theories, which are never
entirely abandoned or accepted, but merely go in and out of fashion. J. Horgan Darwins Little Pond Warm Little Ponds? Ocean Vents Panspermia Life From Mars? Self-assembly In Conclusion @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 32 More Recent News US News & World Report, 5/7/14 Scientific American, 6/1/14
How to Search for Life on Mars We know that liquid water once flowed across its surface DNA Blog, 10/10/13 Scientists create 1st living organism from artificial DNA How Craig Venter Created Life Craig Venter & team have built the genome of a bacterium from scratch & incorporated it into a cell to make so-called worlds first synthetic life form Scientific American, 6/1/14 Students build first eukaryotic chromosome from scratch @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
33 Abiogenesis Possible? Miller/Urey experiment Earth? Sea? Mars? Show stoppers: Information (DNA/RNA) Complexity, redundancy Mathematical probability There is enough information capacity in a single human cell to store the Encyclopedia Britannica, all 30 volumes of it, three or four times over. Richard Dawkins Thus the code can not be translated except by using certain products of
its translation. This constitutes a baffling circle; a really vicious circle, it seems, for any attempt to form a model or theory of the genesis of the genetic code. Sir Karl Popper, Philosopher of Science @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 34 Life By Undirected Natural Causes? No known procedure to generate life: Probabilities of: By unknown prebiotic mechanism
Not even in the laboratory Working protein: 1 in 10**175 Living cell: 1 in 10**340,000,000 But life obviously exists Not by natural causes! The statistical probability that organic structures and the most precisely harmonized reactions that typify living organisms would be generated by accident, is zero. Ilya Prigogine, 1972 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 35 In Conclusion Origin of 1st Life Simplest life 250K base pairs (3B in human genome)
Cant happen here! Primordial soup Pond, vent, volcano Earth, ocean, Mars Panspermia Self-assembly is hype No evidence Not testable Mathematical probability of non-life -> life = 0! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 36
5c. Origin of Complex Life Forms 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Confusion of Terms Used Transitional Fossils Missing Life and Information The Altenberg 16 Natural Selection in Question The Myth of Junk DNA Human & Chimp DNA Similarity? In Conclusion @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 37 1. Confusion of Terms Used Definition of Evolution
Deceptive tactics Strawman and bait-and-switch Evolution a philosophy, not science Microevolution/Adaptation vs. Macroevolution Not testable, verifiable or falsifiable Circular reasoning Natural selection the fittest are those who survive, and those who survive are the fittest Age geological layers with index fossils
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 38 Macro-Evolution? A world-famous chemist tells the truth: theres no scientist alive today who understands macroevolution, March 2014 Professor James M. Tour @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 39 Dawkins Deceptive Tactics Knocking down strawman arguments
Refuting a caricature of opponents position Kind is broader than species Natural selection is not unique to Evolution Equivocation (bait-and-switch) Meaning of Evolution Change in gene frequency with time Descent with modification Examples of alleged Evolution in action @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 40 2. Transitional Fossils Missing
Cambrian layer contains fossils of most Phyla known to man Only soft-bodied organisms (e.g. worms) found in pre-Cambrian strata Number of species fossilized in higher layers decreases in each higher layer @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 41 Living Fossils Coelacanth fish 25-million-year-old
termite fossils in amber Extinct about 70 million years ago Live fish found in 1938 Identical to termites living today Darwin predicted fossils would show changes in fossil record over the years @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 42 Fossil Record Circular Reasoning Reformulated theory of Evolution in 1970s
Evolutionists see patterns in fossil record: Cladistic methods do not identify ancestors Punctuated equilibrium explains away failure of Darwinian theory Absence of change, i.e. stasis Large morphological gaps between lifeforms Absence of clear ancestors and lineages Lack of evidence + fact of Evolution = punctuated equilibrium @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 43 Fossil Evidence? Dotted lines probable range of group of animals; Solid lines fossil evidence @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 44
3. Life and Information Evolution presupposition Creation presupposition The universe consists of only two material fundamental entities mass and energy There is a third entity information Information is encoded within the DNA/RNA of all plant and animal cells Life = material + (nonmaterial) information Information has the following four components: Code, meaning, action, purpose
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 45 Information in Biological Systems Code: 4 letters adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T) Meaning: each 3-letter word represents 1 of the 20 amino acids necessary for protein formation Words (codons) composed of 3 letters Sequence of codons in the DNA represents sequence of amino acids in a protein
Action: proteins needed for construction, function, maintenance, reproduction of the organism and its cellular components Purpose: reproduction of life @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 46 4. The Altenberg 16 An expose of the evolution industry Author: Suzan Mazur, journalist Meeting of 16 Evolution scientists Austria, July 2008 Questions about Evolution mechanisms Discover the elusive process of Evolution Interviews with Lewontin, Dawkins, Margulis, etc. hundreds of other evolutionary scientists who contend
that natural selection is politics, not science Suzan Mazur, 2008 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 47 Neo-Darwinian Mechanisms? We are grappling with the increasing feeling that we just dont have the theoretical and analytical tools necessary to make sense of the bewildering diversity and complexity of living organisms (from the invitation to attend the Altenberg conference, p. 31). Basically I dont think anybody knows how evolution works [emphasis added] (Jerry Fodor, p. 34). She [Lynn Margulis] sees natural selection as neither the source of heritable novelty nor the entire evolutionary process and has pronounced neo-Darwinism dead, since theres no adequate evidence in the literature that random mutations result in new species (Mazur, p. 257). @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 48 5. Natural Selection and Mutations
Natural Selection does not explain the origin of new variants, only the process of changes in their frequency. But Evolution is more than merely a change in trait distributions or allele frequencies; it also includes the origin of the variation. John Endler (Evolutionist) Evolution is not the same as Natural Selection An old bait-and-switch tactic @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 49 6. The Myth of Junk DNA Junk DNA term coined in 1972
Argument used by (even in 2004): Vast majority of the genome (~ 98%) that does not code for proteins Junk DNA sequences serve no biological purpose, evolutionary remnants Dawkins, Futuyma, Miller, Coyne, Avise, Kitcher, Shermer, Collins Claimed to be evidence against ID Relies on theological speculations @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 50 Some DNA History
1953: DNA double helix discovered 1970: some DNA doesnt encode proteins 1986: Denton Theory in Crisis 2003: Human Genome project done 2006: Collins evidence for Evol. 2009: Dawkins evidence for Evol. 2012: ENCODE Project completed Worldwide scientific research effort @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 51 ENCODE Project Results Encyclopedia of DNA Elements, non-protein-coding DNA @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 52
7. Human & Chimp DNA Similarity? Chromosomes (human=23; chimp=24) Evolutionary assumptions Creation assumptions Genome sequence about 98.8% same [Incomplete sequencing] Common designer 95% same counting insertions/deletions Shorter telomeres in humans 10% larger chimp genome
Anzai study 86.7% same @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 53 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 54 Tomkins/Bergman (2012) Similarity re-evaluated using omitted data Using highly selective data Used prescreened samples/data Dissimilar data omitted
Gap data often discarded Influenced by Darwinian dogma Touted 98% similarity Using data from various publications Include 2005 Chimp genome report 87% identical, perhaps even 81% @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 55 8. In Conclusion Complex Life Must use terms consistently Transitional fossils still missing
Stasis, gaps between life forms, missing ancestors Life requires mass + energy + information Altenberg 16 expose fallacy of Evolution mechanism Natural Selection is not Evolution Most mutations are not beneficial (no new info) Junk DNA is a myth Avoid bait-and-switch & strawman arguments Not result of Evolution, 98% -> 20% - Human & chimp DNA very different 1.5% (Evolution bias) -> 20+% (include all differences) @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 56
6. In Summary Belief on Origin of the Universe Belief on Lifes Origin Science Untethered from Evidence, Evolution News, June 8, 2015 Post-Normal Science Real Science vs. Bill Nye the "Science" Guy, Casey Luskin March 15, 2015 Belief on Origin of Complex Life
A Crisis at the Edge of Physics, NY Times, June 5, 2015 Modern examples The Verdict! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 57 A Crisis at the Edge of Physics * Do physicists need empirical evidence to confirm their theories? not necessarily, not anymore. Supersymmetry, string theory, and multiverse theory are the cases in point. How are we to determine whether a theory is true if it cannot be validated experimentally? Today, our most ambitious science can seem at odds with the empirical methodology that has historically given the field its credibility. * From an article in Nature, Ellis and Silk, June 5, 2015 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
58 Belief On Lifes Origins When you have a portion of the population that doesn't believe in [evolution], it holds everybody back. Evolution is the fundamental idea in all of life science. ... And I say to the grown ups, if you want to deny evolution and live in your world that's completely inconsistent with everything we observe in the universe, that's fine. But don't make your kids do it because we need them. We need scientifically literate voters and taxpayers for the future. We need engineers that can build stuff, solve problems. Nyes Proof: Miller-Urey experiment; human/chimp DNA differs by < 2% Real Science vs. Bill Nye the "Science" Guy, Casey Luskin March 15, 2015 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 59 Science Untethered From Evidence * Biology largely retains its faith in the unguided Darwinian mechanism, despite mounting evidence against its power to generate complex life forms. * From article in Evolution News, June 8, 2015
Fossils Show New Human Forerunner, AP News, May 27, 2015 A fossil find adds another twig to the human evolutionary tree, giving further evidence that the wellknown Lucy species had company in what is now Ethiopia, a new study says. A lower jaw, plus jaw fragments and teeth, dated at 3.3 million to 3.5 million years old, were found in the Afar region of northern Ethiopia four years ago. That shows a second human ancestor lived in about the same area and time frame as Lucys species, researchers said. But not everyone agrees. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 60 Post-Normal Science Normal science Post-normal science where:
Leads to theory formulation Facts are uncertain Values in dispute Stakes high Decisions urgent Dr. Jerome Ravetz Modern examples Global Warming (GW) (Macro) Evolution Are scientists ready to embrace theories devoid of evidence? World Mag., 6/16/15 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 61 Post-Normal Science & GW
It has been labeled post-normal science. Climate change seems to fall in this category. Disputes in post-normal science focuson the process of science who gets funded, who evaluates quality, who has the ear of policy The IPCC is a classic example of a post-normal scientific activity. Within a capitalist world order, climate change is actually a convenient phenomenon to come along. The danger of a normal reading of science is that it assumes science can first find truth, then speak truth to power, and that truthbased policy will then followexchanges often reduce to ones about scientific truth rather than about values, perspectives and political preferences. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 62 The Verdict !!
Science is possible because of the laws of nature Origin of the universe requires a Designer Life = mass + energy + information (DNA) Origin of complex life forms requires a Designer Created + fine-tuned for life Origin of first life requires a Designer Fixed by God, Jer. 33:25
Life = material (mass + energy) + immaterial (info) Evolution Gaps Just-so evolution stories Failed in the past, fail now, will fail in the future @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 63 Beware of Pseudoscience! 1 Th. 5:21, but test everything; hold fast what is good Thank you for your attention! Dr. Heinz Lycklama; [email protected]; HeinzLycklama.com The Ethos of Science: 1) open questioning, 2) no authorities, 3) honesty, 4) transparency, 5) reliance on evidence, 6) understanding uncertainty,
7) peer review, and 8) testability can make the world a better place by burying myth, superstition, and dogma and fanatical certainty. Dr. Lawrence Krauss @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 64
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