The Civil Rights Movement - Licking Heights Local School District
The Civil Rights Movement American Studies Time of change and new ideas Gap between older generation and their baby boomer children Counterculture and the protest movement Hippies protest the war, the govt, and traditional
values of society Atmosphere leads to increased support for expanding the rights of minorities Womens Liberation African American Civil Rights Movement 1960s in America Interest Groups: people form to achieve a common goal
To convince the govt to take action on an issue of concern (lobbyists) Political Action Committees (PACs): Independent organizations that contribute to political candidates who agree with their views Raise campaign money Raise public awareness about the issues Political Action Groups
Minority status due to years of legal, political, economic and social discrimination against women 1963: Betty Friedans Feminine Mystique says women can be more than just housewives National Organization for Women (NOW) Founded in 1966: Fight for equal rights for women Push for laws that provide equal pay, education opportunities, childcare centers, maternity leave rights, and
legalized abortion Roe v. Wade 1973 Equal Rights Amendment (ERA): Guarantee men and women have same rights and protections under the law = never ratified Womens Liberation -Today: -More women in the US than men -More women with college degrees
-Women still make 77 cents for every $1 a man makes -Yearly, average man makes $47,000 -Average woman makes $37,000 -Wage gap exists in all racial categories What was the perspective of women who founded the National Organization for Women (NOW) in 1966?
A. Women wanted to receive equal pay and opportunities for advancement in the workplace. B. Women were afraid of being forced to work in physically challenging jobs. C. Women were angry at the prospect of having to serve in the military. D. Women wanted to gain the right to vote and to own property. Practice Question
AIM: Founded 1968 to combat issues of discrimination and poverty of Native Americans Facing high unemployment, slum housing, police brutality, little help from the govt 1972: Trail of Broken Treaties March Govt responds: More control over their education to preserve their culture Regain some land lost as result of treaty violations Still working to restore more native land and improve
daily life in Native American community American Indian Movement One reason Native Americans founded the American Indian Movement (AIM) was they wanted to A. reestablish reservations that had been closed down. B. improve life on reservations and receive protection of their rights.
C. reawaken pride in their culture and heritage. D. create a separate and independent Native American State. Practice Question UFW: Migrant workers seek relief through social and political activism Many immigrants of Latin American decent Work long hours for little pay, harsh conditions and low-quality housing Unsanitary conditions and violations of child labor
laws Dolores Huerta and Cesar Chavez organized strikes and boycotts, forcing growers to improve conditions for the pickers Work with AFL-CIO union United Farm Workers -Strike: Refuse to work until worker demands are met by company -Boycott: Refuse to buy goods from a
company in order to put economic pressure on them to make a change In the 1960s and 1970s, Hispanic-American farm workers in the United States believed their employers were failing to provide reasonable wages and working conditions like those received by other American workers. For this reason, Hispanic-American farm workers:
A. urged the exportation of agricultural produce. B. organized the United Farm Workers Association. C encouraged farm producers to lower prices. D. opposed passage of anti-discrimination laws. Practice Question *African Americans: NAACP: Founded in 1909 Work through legal system toward the goal of equal rights Fight Jim Crow Laws, lynching, segregation, and workplace
discrimination 1896:Plessy vs. Ferguson Separate but equal segregation is legal 1954: Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Overturns Plessey v. Ferguson, separate but equal segregation is illegal http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-move ment/videos/separate-but-not-equal?m=528e394da93ae&s
=undefined&f=1&free=false Thurgood Marshall was the lawyer to defend Brown and becomes first black Supreme Court Justice in 1967 The Civil Rights Movement What perspective of African-Americans was reflected in the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909? A. the desire for a return to their cultural heritage B. the need to improve working conditions in factories
C. the desire to end legalized discrimination based on race D. the belief in the importance of building a new country in Africa Practice Question The U.S. Constitution is a living document that evolves through Supreme Court decisions. Describe the decisions in Plessey vs. Ferguson and Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, and explain how
they influenced the Constitutions evolution. (4 bullet points) Practice Question Jim Crow Laws: Legalized racism and segregation in the South Cant use the same pools, water fountains, bathrooms, libraries, hospitals, schools, parks and playgrounds, cemeteries, barbers, home/hotel, etc. Segregated restaurants, movie theaters, busses and trains Whites cant marry anyone with 1/8 African,
Japanese or Chinese ancestry Cant play games, cards, dice or dominos together Last Ku Klux Klan revival during this period White Supremacists http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-right s-movement/videos/sylvia-woods-freedom?m=528e3 94da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false Racism in America Govt orders desegregation of schools but some Southern
states resist 1956: Southern members of Congress signed Southern Manifesto demanding legal segregation be restored 1957: Most famous defiance in Little Rock , Arkansas 9 African Americans try to go to class at a formerly white high school Governor called out National Guard to prevent desegregation Court forced him to withdraw, but angry mob turned students away Eisenhower sends fed troops to enforce order and protect black students First
time since Reconstruction that Fed govt took action to advance the rights of African Americans Events covered on TV helped sway public opinion against racist mobs Desegregation http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=xERXusiEszs http://www.history.com/topics /black-history/civil-rights-mo vement/videos/emmett-till--l egacy?m=528e394da93ae&s =undefined&f=1&free=false
What happened at Little Rock Arkansas? a. African Americans desegregated schools, without any trouble at all. b. African Americans tried to desegregate schools but they were not allowed in and were humiliated. c. African Americans desegregated schools, with
the help of Eisenhower and the National Guard. d. African Americans desegregated schools with the help of Arkansass governor. Practice Question 1955: 14 yr. old boy murdered in Mississippi for flirting with a white woman Beaten, eyes gouged out, shot, throw in a river where he was found days later Mother wanted public open casket funeral to show
brutality of racism Murderers never convicted Intense criticism of Mississippi His death played a pivotal role for gaining support for the Civil Rights Movement http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights- movement/videos/emmett-till--legacy?m=528e394da9 3ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false The Murder of Emmett Till
1955: Rosa Parks boarded bus in Alabama and when told to give up her seat to a white man she refused Civil Disobedience: Break a law and get caught to protest injustice She was arrested and fined http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TjXovChu1aM http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-movement/ videos/bet-you-didnt-know-rosa-parks?m=528e394da93ae&s=un defined&f=1&free=false Martin
Luther King Jr.: Young Baptist minister Advocated of non-violence and wanted to show that peaceful protest could be effective Helped organize boycott of the bus company to respond to end bus segregation Montgomery Bus Boycott http://www.history.com/top ics/black-history/civil-right s-movement/videos/montg omery-bus-boycott?m=52 8e394da93ae&s=undefine
d&f=1&free=false Majority of bus riders were African American 1956: Unable to handle the loss of income, the city agreed to desegregate public transportation Supreme Court rules segregation of public facilities is unconstitutional King
becomes head of Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Became recognized as civil rights leader Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi Montgomery Bus Boycott 1960s: Civil Rights movement gained momentum Organized new forms of non-violent protest Greensboro, NC: Sit-in at segregated lunch
counter in 1960 to show they would not obey segregation laws Black and white students organized the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Sit-Ins http://www.travelchannel.co m/video/historic-lunch-count er-sit-in-12547
1961: Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Sponsored bus trips around the south testing the enforcement of the desegregation law Both blacks and whites, called freedom riders Met opposition as soon as they entered the south First ride in 1947: Several arrested in NC, some end up serving in chain gangs there
Freedom Riders 1960s Journey of Reconciliation Freedom Rider bus tour Wanted to encourage the govt to enforce desegregation in the south Blacks ride at the front, whites in the back, violating Jim Crow laws Blacks entered white-only restrooms, restaurants, etc. and whites did the opposite Met violent resistance: Mobs waiting to throw stones, slash tires, beat riders, arrest them Birmingham
and Montgomery: Promised protection by the police but attacked in anyway Despite threats they continued to Mississippi Were arrested and tried for breaking state law Sentenced some to 60 day terms in state penitentiary Freedom Riders http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/a mericanexperience/freedo mriders/watch News
spread and more riders joined to replace those in jail By the end: Mississippi arrested over 300 Despite beatings and arrests, they achieved their goal and govt changed Made huge contribution at great personal cost Senator Robert Kennedy convinced the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to rule that segregation of interstate bus travel illegal Freedom Riders
What is one direct consequence of the U.S. civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s? A. the right to freedom of religion for all citizens B. the end of legal segregation in public places C. the granting of citizenship to AfricanAmericans D. the passing of legislation to protect the accused Practice Question
After death of a NAACP leader Medgar Evers: Largest Civil Rights demonstration in history August 1963 March for Jobs and Freedom: Organized by NAACP, CORE, SNCC, SCLC, etc. About 300,000 attend to fight for equality and listen to historic speakers MLK Jr. gives his I have a dream speech
Impact: March encourages passage of Civil Rights Act The Great March on Washington http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=HRIF4_WzU1w&feature=kp I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: We
hold these truths to be selfevident that all men are created equalI have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. Whites in Alabama were angered by integration of schools and Civil Rights protest In response: Men blow up a Baptist church
used for protest meetings Kills four innocent little girls Man seen at scene and found with dynamite is found not guilty http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil -rights-movement/videos/bombing-of-the-16th-s treet-baptist-church?m=528e394da93ae&s=un defined&f=1&free=false Bombing in Birmingham SNCC organizes volunteers to help African
Americans in Mississippi register to vote Over 1000 out-of-state white volunteers joining thousands of local black activists State had lowest # registered: only 6.7% of blacks in the state Literacy tests, difficult registration process, threats and violence had prevented them from voting Activists were met with violent opposition Impact: Movement encourages the govt to pass Voting Rights Act Freedom Summer 1964 Over the course of the tenweek project:
4 civil rights workers were killed At least 3 Mississippi blacks were murdered because of their support for the civil rights movement 4 people were critically wounded 80 Freedom Summer workers were beaten 1062 people were arrested (volunteers and locals) 37 churches were bombed or burned
30 Black homes or businesses were bombed or burned http:// app.discoveryeducation.com/sea rch?Ntt=freedom+summer Landmark legislation outlaws major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women.
Outlawed: Segregation of public facilities Workplace discrimination Housing and Loan discrimination Civil Rights Act of 1964 In 1964, President Lyndon Johnson persuaded Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act, which outlawed racial discrimination in public places, such as theaters, cafeterias and hotels.
This was an attempt to A. maintain poll taxes for African-Americans. B. stop African-American northward migration. C. end segregation legalized by Jim Crow laws. D. maintain literacy tests for African-Americans Practice Question 600 protestors beaten and tear gassed by police
http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-m ovement/videos/bloody-sunday?m=528e394da93ae&s= undefined&f=1&free=false In response, SNCC organizes a long march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama Two attempts stopped by police and mob Martin Luther King and SCLC come to support marchers
Under National Guard and FBI protection Walk 10 miles a day from March 16-24th Successfully arrive at the capital Encourages passage of Voting Rights Act http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-m ovement/videos/freedom-march?m=528e394da93ae&s =undefined&f=1&free=false 1965: Bloody Sunday http://www.history.c om/topics/black-hist ory/civil-rights-mov ement/videos/marc
h-from-selma-to-mo ntgomery?m=528e 394da93ae&s=und efined&f=1&free=f alse Makes it easier to register to vote Discrimination and literacy tests are illegal Federal oversight of election boards
In many Southern states, less than 50% of population was registered to vote Voting laws are finally enforced nationally New laws insight riots in cities like LA, Cleveland, Detroit and Chicago http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civilrights-movement/videos/voting-rights-bill?m=52 8e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false The Voting Rights Act of 1965 1968: Robert Kennedy and MLK Jr. both
assassinated War protests increase: public is distracted Not all goals of the movement were accomplished right away, but major impact made on America: Non-violent protest shown as effective way to create positive change Encourages other minority groups to fight for equality Forces nation to redefine what we stand for and brings up issues we still discuss today Racism becomes less socially acceptable The End and Impact
The Civil Rights Movement was all about the road to equality. One of the leaders of this movement was Martin Luther King Jr. What type of protest did he promote how did it work? Then please explain three different examples of Civil Disobedience and or non-violent protest during the Civil Rights Movement. (4 bullet points) Practice Question
Malcom X (Malcom Little 1925-1965): Father killed by white supremacists, mother committed to mental institution In prison for robbery: Studied Marcus Garvey and became part of the Black Muslims Believed white devils were inherently racist and blacks should not integrate into American society Preached against Kings non-violence and instead wanted blacks to form their own society Black Panther Party: Malcom X was not a member
Also spoke against non-violence and cooperation with whites Promoted Black nationalism and self-defense http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-move ment/videos/malcolm-x?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f =1&free=false Black Power Movement I Have Seen the Mountain Top MLKs Las t Speech http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixfwGLxRJU8
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