The Cold War - Gun Scope

The Cold War - Gun Scope

The Cold War Greatest Hits Collection 1948 - Berlin Blockade and Airlift Germany was divided and occupied by major powers after the war. On June 24th, the Soviet Union blocked the Western allies railway, road, and canal access to West Berlin. The Soviets offered to withdraw the

blockade if the Allies withdrew the newlycreated Deutsche mark from West Berlin. 1948 Berlin Blockade and Airlift In response, the allies organized the Berlin Airlift. Aircraft from the air forces of the US, UK, France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa flew more than 200,000 flights into West Berlin. The planes carried up to 9,000 tons a day of supplies like food and fuel to the city of

millions. At times, a plane landed every 40 seconds. By Spring 1949, the airlift was transporting more goods than was possible by rail, and the blockade was 1950-1953 The Korean War In 1945, Korea was administered by a joint US-Soviet commission following the surrender of Japan. Citing an inability of the commission to

make progress, the US government decided to hold an election to create an independent Korea. The Soviet and Korean Communists refused to cooperate, and the South elected a parliament and Syngman Rhee as President. The Soviets established a Communist government led by Kim Il-Sung. 1950-1953 The Korean War With Japan gone, the Chinese Civil War

continued, and North Korea send supplies and soldiers to China, eventually helping the Communists win in China. Veterans of this war returned to Korea with their weapons, and China promised to help them in the event of a war with South Korea. Chin believed that they would be a target of American anti-communism; they pursued a foreign policy aimed at communist revolutions throughout Chinas neighborhood.

1950-1953 The Korean War April 1950 Stalin gives Kim permission to invade, as long as Mao would send reinforcements if needed; Stalin would not directly engage US forces to avoid a war with America. June 25, the PRK invaded across the 38th parallel. Within 5 days they had reduced the ROKs army from 95,000 to 22,000. The war went badly; America became involved in July but were pushed South as far as Pusan. 1950-1953 The Korean War

In September, America launched an amphibious assault at Incheon. It was successful, and led to the recapture of Seoul by the end of the month and a successful push northward. By October 1, the Americans had crossed the 38th parallel. By the end of October, a huge Chinese army crossed into Korea to support the Korean troops, successfully defeating the Americans at Unsan. 1950-1953 The Korean War

With Chinese support, the PRK were able to push the American and ROK forces back towards the 38th parallel. Fighting around that line raged for six months, settling into a stalemate in July of 1951. Armistice negotiations continued for two years, resulting in the 38th parallel as a border, with a 4-mile wide DMZ. 1957 Space Race July 1955 The United States announces its intent to launch artificlal satellites into orbit. August 1955 The USSR declares it will also do so in the near future.

October 1957 The USSR launches Sputnik 1. Four months and many failures later, US scientists successfully launched the Explorer 1 satellite into orbit. The next month, a 2nd US satellite was launched. 1957 Space Race In April of 1958, Eisenhower proposed a civilian space agency be created for the countrys non-military space activities. NASA was created in July of that year.

In 1959 the Soviets sent uncrewed spacecraft towards the moon, hitting it with the 800-lb Luna 2 and effecting a flyby with Luna 3, which sent back pictures of the dark side for the first time. The American response was the Ranger program; Ranger 4 hit the moon but was damaged and sent no data back. Ranger 7 sent images of the dark side in 1964. 1957 Space Race In April of 1961, Russian Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin orbited earth in a craft called

Vostok 1, parachuting to Russia from 7,000 ft. In May, the USA sent Allan Shepherd into space (but not orbit), where he successfully piloted his craft, the Freedom 7, and returned to Earth. On May 25th, President Kennedy asked Congress for financial support for the Apollo Program. 1957 Space Race In 1963, Kennedy proposed a joint US

USSR program to send a man to the moon. It was reported that they were willing to accept his offer at the time he was shot. Both sides continued to improve their space vehicles, until the Apollo 11 mission landed on the moon in 1969. 1960 U-2 Spy Plane American spy plane pilot Francis Powers was shot down over Soviet airspace.

He parachuted to safety and was picked up by the Russians. The US tried to cover up the planes purpose, but Powers was put on television, as was the wreckage of the plane, and photos of Soviet military bases taken from the plane. 1961 Bay of Pigs April 1961 1,500 Cuban exiles land on the beach in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro.

Funded by the Americans, the exiles were out-manned and out-planned, and 1,100 were arrested. Some blamed the CIA for faulty intel. Others think that the US did not sufficiently support the idea of the invasion and sent the rebels out without suffcient supplies and planning. 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis October U-2 Spy Plane spots long-range missiles on Cuba.

The US establishes a naval blockade to prevent more missiles from being delivered. With Soviet ships on the way, Kennedy insisted that no more missiles be delivered; the White House debated firing at the missile sites to take them out. The Soviets agreed to remove the missiles if the US would remove its missiles from Turkey, and the Third World War was narrowly averted. 1969 - SALT SALT I Helsinki

SALT II Vladivostok Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. The powers agree to limit their own growing nuclear arsenals. Leads to START STrategic Arms Reduction Treaties. 1979 Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan The Russians invaded Afghanistan to spread Communism. They were met by the Mujahedin,

a multi-national Muslim mercenary force led and financed by wealthy Saudi businessmen. The Mujahedin were no match for Russian helicopter gunships. The United States smuggled antiaircraft Stinger missiles to them. They defeated the USSR in a terrible 10-year war. 1989 Reunification of Germany When Russia stopped military and financial

support of the satellite states, the border between East and West began to develop cracks. First in Hungary, then in Germany, thousands escaped into the West. When it became clear that the guards werent going to shoot, the gates in the Berlin Wall were opened, and people rushed through and began tearing the wall down. 1989 Reunification of Germany

In March elections, the Communists lost control of the German Parliament. In October, the two countries reuified under a common flag and a common government.

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