The US Constitution US Government & Politics The US Constitution Written in 1787 Took effect in 1789 Has 7,000 words The nations highest form of law in the land Outlines the basic principles upon which the government was built and operates
Deals largely with matters of basic principle Organization Preamble: Introduction & Purpose Articles: outlines the basic organization and powers of each branch and the powers given to the states 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Legislative Branch Executive Branch Judicial Branch Relations among the States Amending the Constitution
National Debts, Supremacy of National Law, and Oaths of Office Ratifying the Constitution The Six Basic Principles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Popular Sovereignty
Limited Government Separation of Powers Checks and Balances Judicial Review Federalism Popular Sovereignty All political power resides in the people The people are sovereign The people are the only source for any and all governmental
power Government can only govern with the consent of the governed Woven throughout the Constitution Limited Government No government is all powerful A government may do only those things that the people have given it the power to do Government must obey the law Constitutionalism- the government must be
conducted according to constitutional principles Rule of Law- The government and its officers are always subject to-never above-the law Separation of Powers Presidential Democracy (aka Presidential System) The basic powers are separated among three distinct and independent branches of government 1.
2. 3. Congress (House + Senate) = Legislative Branch President = Executive Branch Courts = Judicial Branch Checks and Balances Three branches are not entirely separate Tied together by a complex system of checks and balances Each branch is subject to a number of restraints (checks) by other branches
Each branch has certain powers with which it can check the operations of the other two Judicial Review One aspect of the check and balance system The power to declare unconstitutional (to declare illegal), null and void, of no forces and effect, a government action found to violate some provision of the Constitution Held by all federal courts and most state courts Not written in the constitution (implied; secured by Marbury v. Madison (1803))
Marbury v. Madison (1803) William Marbury asked the Supreme Court to issue a writ of mandamus to order James Madison (then, Secretary of State under Jefferson) to deliver his commission as justice of the peace (appointed by John Adams) . The Supreme Court of the United States declared that: Marbury is entitled to the commission, but: The Court cannot issue the writ because the Judiciary Act of 1789, which granted the Supreme Court original jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus, is
unconstitutional. The Supreme Court of the United States has the power to review acts of other branches and determine their constitutionality. This power is called judicial review. The Amendment Process The process of constitutional change has come about in two ways: 1. 2.
Formal Amendment changes or additions that become part of the written language of the Constitution itself By other informal means Formal Amendment Process Article 5: The Congress, whenever 2/3 of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution Or 2/3 of the state legislatures can call a convention Either case needs of the states legislature to pass for it to be ratified
Proposed Amendments Since 1789, 10,000 joint resolutions calling for formal Amendments have been proposed. Only 33 have gone to the states and 27 have become Amendments. (ERA died in 1982) If a state rejects a proposed amendment, it is not forever bound by that decision. It may later ratify. Once a state approves an Amendment, it may not change its decision. The 27 Amendments
1-10, the Bill of Rights-Set out the constitutional guarantees of freedom of belief and expression, of freedom and security of the person, and of free fair and equal treatment before the law. The later Amendments-Most came about over a particular set of interesting circumstances 27th Amendment (took 202 years, 7 months, 12 days to ratify); initiated by Framers, signed into law in 1992 Constitutional Change by Other Means: Informal
There is a great deal in the Constitution that cannot be seen by the naked eye Over time, many changes have been made in the constitution which have not involved any changes in its written words Change occurs in five basic ways:
Change (Informal Amendment Process) 1. 2. 3. 4. Basic Legislation: Congress passes laws to clarify the constitution Executive Action: Executive Orders & Executive Agreements Key Decisions of the Supreme Court The activities of political parties: nomination process not
LERN/IoE/DEBRe Conference: Socio-economic status, social class and education; London, UK: May 2009 Dylan Wiliam www.dylanwiliam.net Science We need to improve average student achievement We need to narrow achievement gaps Both require improving teacher quality Improving the quality of entrants ...
Placement of skill on continua to include (with examples) Gross and fine . Open and closed . Discrete, serial and continuous. External and internally paced . Simple or complex. High and low organisation (B) - Definition and characteristics of abilities....
With the increasing complexity it is necessary to describe the diverse manifestations. * Rupert Riedl (e.g. 1980) was able to show that the four Aristotelian basic causes belong inextricably together and that no "priority" among them exists.
Chris White Quaff Meeting 05 New Yeast Strains and Bacteria Platinum Strains: WLP041 - Pacific Ale Yeast March/April- A popular ale yeast from the Pacific Northwest. The yeast will clear from the beer well, and leave a malty profile. More...
Conflict poetry. Unseen. Your Literature Paper 2 exam will contain a question on Conflict poetry and a question on unseen poetry. The unseen poetry question is in two parts: 1. You analyse one unseen poem (24 marks) 2. You compare...
SCCOE will continue to be a clearing house of information, both through its website and with district representative participation at the Seal of Biliteracy Consortium meetings. ... the ability to do something successfully or efficiently (Oxford Dictionary on-line, American-English) The...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!