Brinkley Who were some of the advocates of centralization or supporters of a strong national government during the 1780s? Some military men, like the Society of Cincinnati, wanted to be paid their Revolutionary War pensions American manufacturers wanted to replace state tariffs with a more uniform national duty Merchants and shippers wanted to replace state commercial policies with one uniform one Land speculators wanted Indians removed from western lands People who were owed money wanted individual states to stop issuing currency and thus lowering the value of what they received Investors in confederation securities wanted the government to fund their debt so their securities would increase in value
Property owners feared mob rule (like Shays Rebellion) Brinkley What role did Alexander Hamilton play in instituting a constitutional convention in Philadelphia? Found an ally in James Madison to call for a convention Madison persuaded VA delegates to call for a convention on interstate commerce 5 states sent delegates to the Annapolis Convention in Maryland in 1786 Delegates approved a proposal drafted by Hamilton (NY) recommending that Congress call a special convention to consider ways to revise the Articles of Confederation
Brinkley What was characteristic of the 55 delegates who attended the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787? I. The Road to the Constitution Constitutional Convention, 1787 We have here at present what the French call une assemble des notable, a convention composed of some of the principal people from the several states of our ConfederationBen Franklin an assembly of demi-godsThomas Jefferson observing from Paris
Franklin, Hamilton, Washington Brinkley-James Madison What were the two important philosophical questions that Madison helped answer at the Constitutional Convention? How were they answered? Where did ultimate sovereignty lie between a national government and a state government? How can the new
government avoid concentrated authority? I. The Road to the Constitution George Washington Most prominent demi-god Arrived in Philadelphia on May 13 Senior officers of the continental army and citizens on horseback greeted him on the outskirts of the city and formed an escort Guns fired a salute and the bells of Christ Church rang out 55 years old; suffered from rheumatism Did not want to risk his reputation in an effort that might be doomed to fail
I. The Road to the Constitution George Washington Had resigned his military commission in December 1783;
intent on retirement Friends urged him to come to Philadelphia to lend his influence and prestige to the convention Washington thought that a refusal to go would be interpreted as his rejection of the convention Decided to go out of a sense of duty No one doubted that he would be elected the presiding officer of the convention Motion made by Robert Morris of Pennsylvania and seconded by John Rutledge from South Carolina Voted on unanimously I. The Road to the Constitution James Madison First of the Virginia delegation to arrive in Philadelphia on May 3, 1787 from New York,
where he had been serving in Congress 36 years old from Montpelier in Orange County, Virginia Slight man, 5-6, shy and bookish Close friend of Thomas Jefferson What we know about the convention comes from Madisons meticulous notes I. The Road to the Constitution Benjamin Franklin 81 years old and suffering from gout and gall stones that made it impossible for him to walk Had returned in 1785 from Paris where he had been an American minister; planned to retire Members of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania asked him to accept the post of
president (governor) In late March 1787 he accepted a commission to attend the constitutional convention in his hometown I. The Road to the Constitution The men not there John Adams was American minister in London Thomas Jefferson was American
minister in Paris Both mens presence was felt: Adams had recently published A Defense of the Constitutions of Government in the United States Jefferson exchanged letters with Madison and sent him books on constitutional theory and history I. The Road to the Constitution The Constitutional Convention (May-September 1787, Philadelphia) A total of 55 delegates from 12 states were in attendance Rhode Island sent no delegate because it
opposed a stronger central government (beginnings of conflict between large and small states) Original intent was to revise the Articles of Confederation Quickly realized that the Articles were not worth saving; began to develop a new document The Constitution that would set up a central government I. The Road to the Constitution The Constitutional Convention (May-September 1787, Philadelphia) Ruled that nothing spoken in the House be printed, or otherwise published, or communicated
without leave. Armed sentries were posted in the hall just outside the assembly room and on the street outside the State House. A few delegates kept private records anyway; best record came from James Madison Madisons notes would be published in 1840; used by historians and constitutionalists to determine the intent of the founding fathers in framing the constitution Pennsylvania State House/Independence Hall Federal Hall, The Seat of Congress. Amos Doolittle
(1754-1832). Engraving, 1790. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62333. I. The Road to the Constitution Demographic Make-up of Delegates Historian James MacGregor Burnsit was a convention of the well-bred, the well-fed, and the well-wed.
All were white men Most were professional and businessmen, rather than farmers and laborers More than half of the delegates were under the age of 40 More than half were slaveholders Half were college graduates and had experience in government Several had been active in the fight for independence I. The Road to the Constitution Early Decisions Each state would have only one vote, regardless of
the number of delegates it sent to the Convention. Issues would be decided by a simple majority vote (in this case, seven votes were needed to approve anything) The debate in the Convention would be kept secret Kept public pressure off the delegates Allowed delegates to speak freelythey did not have to worry about reaction of their constituency Resultwe have no official records of the Convention II. Creating and Ratifying the Constitution Two Plans of Government The Virginia Plan proposed by Virginia governor
Edmund Randolph, but written by James Madison 1. This plan included a national executive, national judiciary, and a bicameral legislature called Congress. 2. Representation in both the upper and lower house of the legislature would be based on population of each statemore populous states would have more representation than less populous states. 3. Lower house elected by the people; upper house chosen by the lower Creating the Constitution The Virginia Plan (James Madison and VA Delegates)
Executive Branch (Powerful President) Judiciary (Federal Courts) Legislative Branch House of Representatives # of Reps Based on State Population
Senate # of Reps Based on State Population Father of the Constitution II. Creating and Ratifying the Constitution New Jersey Planproposed by William Patterson from New Jersey as an alternative 1. Proposed out of fear that large states would dominate Congress and small states would have
little power 2. Plan included a federal executive (consisting of more than one person), a federal judiciary, and a federal legislature called Congress which would be a unicameral body with equal representation for each state 3. Was similar to the government under the Articles of Confederation Creating the Constitution The New Jersey Plan (William Patterson from NJ) Feared large states would dominate Congress Similar to Articles of Confederation
Legislative Branch (unicameral) # of Reps equal for all states No power to veto state laws Executive Committee More than one person II. Creating and Ratifying the
Constitution The Great Compromise (The Connecticut Compromise) proposed a bicameral legislature Roger Sherman
1. Representation in the lower house would be based on population- House of Representative 2. Representation in the upper house would be equal- Senate Its chief virtue-it satisfied neither the small states or the large states Alexander Hamilton called it a motley measure James Madison called it a novelty Agreed upon with a 5-4 vote II. Creating and Ratifying the Constitution
How will Congress be chosen? a. Many delegate feared popular elections. Considered the masses too easy swayed by popular passion. b. Senators would be elected by the state legislators c. Members of the House of Representatives would be elected directly by the people.
Creating the Compromise II. Creating and Ratifying the Constitution Three-Fifths Compromise 1. In an effort to increase their power in the House of Representatives, southern states wanted slaves counted as part of
their population 2. This idea was opposed by northern states that had fewer slaves 3. In the compromise, enslaved persons would be counted as 3/5 of other persons 4. This number would be used to determine representation and taxes II. Creating and Ratifying the Constitution Commerce and Slave Trade CompromiseNortherners wanted Congress to regulate foreign and interstate trade. Southerners feared taxes on
exports and slowing of slave trade. 1. Congress would regulate interstate commerce and international trade 2. Congress could not tax exports 3. Congress could not interfere with the slave trade for 20 years II. Creating and Ratifying the Constitution How will the President be chosen?
a. Option #1President will be chosen by members of Congress b. Option #2President will be elected by the people c. Compromisedelegates decided on a system called the Electoral College where each state legislature would choose a number of electors who would select the President and Vice President II. Creating and Ratifying the Constitution
Convention appointed a Committee of Style and Arrangement to draft the Constitution James Madison (VA) Alexander Hamilton (NY) Rufus King (SC) Gouverneur Morris (PA) Largely fell upon Gouverneur Morris One of the last sections he composed was the Preamble; stylistic change from We the People of named states to We the People of the United States
II. Creating and Ratifying the Constitution When the Committee of Style presented its final draft to the convention, there were several objections: George Mason (VA) demanded a Bill of Rights; after delegates voted that it was too late to add one he stated that he would sooner chop off his right hand than put it to the Constitution Edmund Randolph who first proposed the VA Plan doubted that his state would approve it and refused to sign Elbridge Gerry (Massachusetts) that that members of the Senate would hold offices too long and that Massachusetts would not be fairly represented in the House of Representatives. He refused to sign.
II. Creating and Ratifying the Constitution Ben Franklin also objected to the Constitution but put an end to the speculation He asked James Wilson to read a speech: I confess that there are several parts of this constitution which I do not at present approve, but I am not sure I shall never approve them: For having lived long, I have experienced many instances of being obliged by better information or fuller consideration, to change opinions even on important subjects, which I
once thought right, but found to be otherwiseThus I consent, Sir, to this Constitution because I expect no better, and because I am not sure, that it is not the best. II. Creating and Ratifying the Constitution Delegates signed the Constitution on September 17, 1787 and decided it would take nine out of the thirteen states to ratify the document By the end of October, the tide was turning against the Constitution
VA-Richard Henry Lee and Patrick Henry announced that they would work against ratification; Lee said that the Constitution was the work of the artful and ever active aristocracy; angered by the wording of the Preamble; and agreed with George Mason that there needed to be a Bill of Rights MA-James Winthrop published letters under the pseudonym, Agrippa, charging that the Constitution gave too much power to the central government II. Ratifying the Constitution Anti-federalists: In NY on September 27, newspapers published a series of attacks against the Constitution and the Philadelphia Convention:
Used the pseudonym CATO, Sydney, Brutus Long thought to be New Yorks antifederalist governor, George Clinton, and his supporters Anti-Federalists Opposed the Constitution Felt it gave too much power to the national government Too much like the King and Parliament Took too much power away from the states Wanted a Bill of Rights Added To
guarantee basic liberties Articles of Confederation needed to be fixed, not thrown away Made up of small farmers and poor merchants Wrote a series of essays (AntiFederalist Essays) Discouraged ratification of the Constitution Brinkley-Federalists What advantages did the Federalists have over the Anti-Federalists? Federalists Alarmed by the anti-Federalist
letters, Alexander Hamilton decided to mount a campaign to reply Eighty-five letters from Publius 55 written by Hamilton 29 by Madison 5 by John Jay Hamilton arranged that the letters by printed in book form and on May 28, 1788, a 2 volume edition of The Federalist was published in New York Federalists Supported the Constitution
Nation couldnt survive without a strong national government Proof: Articles of Confederation Did not think a bill of rights was necessary Made up of mainly Large farmers, rich merchants and artisans The Federalist Papers Written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton Defended the constitution and
attempted to persuade citizens to vote for ratification Federalists Anti-Federalists President Strong leader for nation Feared would become dictator Role of Congress
Strong Congress to make laws for nation State legislatures to have most power Courts Handle disputes that affect nation State courts most power Role of States National govt supreme
State govt supreme Bill of Rights? No need, each state already had one Must have one to prevent abuse Federal govt Division of power would keep federal under control
Federal govt would abuse rights of citizens (like King) Examples Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, Federalist Papers NC, Anti-Federalist essays The debate over ratification was primarily over a Bill of Rights Hamilton originally thought it unnecessary and
dangerous; Madison originally agreed but backed down and in October of 1788 called for a compromise and an inclusion of a Bill of Rights 1. Delaware was the first state to ratify the document on December 17, 1787 2. On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the Constitution, putting it into effect 3. North Carolina ratifies Constitution on
November 1, 1789, the 12th state to do so 4.Rhode Island was the last to ratify the Constitution in 1790 Cracking the Constitutional Code Scavenger Hunt Partner with a classmate to complete this task. Use a copy of the U.S. Constitution found online (dedwardsushistory.weebly.com) to answer the guided questions. The group that finishes first with all of the correct answers receives a homework pass LEQ Advice Use the Core Structure:
Thesis statement that answers the question, takes a position and establishes categories of analysis Topic Sentences Conclusion/Synthesis Synthesis=Make as specific of a historical connection to another time period, historical theme or historiographical school of thought that demonstrates your understanding of the questions complexity Analysis=How and Why or to what extent some bit of SFI supports your thesis SFI=Specific Factual Information Write in past tense Write in third person Write in active voice
Covers the types of record books available, what you can consider a project and anything else you can think of related to record books! "4-H Food Challenge" - Charla Bading. Invite your fellow 4-Hers to learn about "4-H Food Challenge".
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