The Effect of Generation on Retention of Women Engineers in ...

The Effect of Generation on Retention of Women Engineers in ...

Understanding Generation: Implications for Flight Training, Hiring, and Retention Kristy Kiernan, Ph.D. Outline of presentation Define generation Our workforce Truths Implications Recommendations 2

Generations Silent Generation (1925-1944) Baby Boom Generation (1945-1964) Generation X (1965-1980) Millennial Generation (1981-1999) ??? (2000 and beyond) Time lag design: Age effect vs generation effect Stages in life course Youth | Middle | Old Youth | Middle | Old

Youth | Middle | Old Youth | Middle | Old Youth | Middle | Old 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030

2050 5 Generation demographics Age of workforce 40 35 30 25 20 15

10 5 0 14-24 25-34 35-44 Aerospace 2012 45-54 55-64

65+ Total Industry 2012 Adapted from Vance-Sherman, A. (2014). Demographic trends in aerospace employment. Women in Aerospace: The changing demographics. Meeting of Pacific Northwest Aerospace Alliance. 7 Generation distribution: ATP rated pilots (2016) 90000 80000

70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 Millennial Generation X Column1

Baby Boom Silent Generation 8 Time lag of age distribution of ATP rated pilots 90000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000

30000 20000 10000 0 17-35 36-51 52-71 2016 72-91

9 Time lag of age distribution of ATP rated pilots 90000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0

17-35 36-51 1994 52-71 2016 72-91 10 Mean age of ATP rated pilots

52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 1985 1990 1995

2000 2005 2010 2015 11 Generation distribution: ATP vs Remote pilot 90000 80000

70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 Millennial Generation X ATP

Baby Boom Silent Generation Remote Pilot 12 Real generational differences Diversity Education Family formation Family roles

Role of work 13 Real generational differences Diversity Real generational differences Education Real generational differences Education

More education means more debt Real generational differences Family formation Source: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics Reports, 2011. 18 Real generational differences Family roles It is better for all

involved if the man earns the money and the woman takes care of the home and children Real generational differences Family roles Work-life conflict among dual

earner couples all generations Statistically significant differences between men and women in dual-earner couples with children under 18: 1977 ns; 2008 *** (1977 n=339; 2008 n=391) U.S. Department of Labor, Quality of Employment Survey, 1977 Families and Work Institute, National Study of the Changing Workforce, 2008 Real generational differences Family roles Average time parents

under 29 time spend with their children on workdays Statistically significant differences between young fathers and mothers: 1977 ***; 2008 ns (1977 n=124; 2008 n=95) U.S. Department of Labor, Quality of Employment Survey, 1977 Families and Work Institute, National Study of the Changing Workforce, 2008 Real generational differences Role of work

Percent of high school seniors who consider work or leisure important or pretty important Work Leisure 100

95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 Wray-Lake, L., Syvertsen, A. K., Briddell, L., Osgood, D. W., & Flanagan, C. A. (2010). Exploring the changing meaning of work for American high school seniors from 1976 to 2005. Youth & Society, 43(3): 11101135.

22 How important is your career to your sense of identity? How important is your life outside of work to your identity? Inter-generational comparison of average number of job changes across career stages Lyons, Sean T., et al. "Comparing apples to apples: A qualitative investigation of

career mobility patterns across four generations." Career Development International 17.4 (2012): 333-357. Implications and Recommendations Workforce is more educated and diverse Be cognizant of student debt Look to non-traditional demographics Workforce is delaying family formation Capitalize on flexibility Family roles are more egalitarian Creatively accommodate family needs

Importance of leisure relative to work is increasing Emphasize time off in airline career Recommendations for future research Accession: Why are young people not choosing pilot careers? What are obstacles to pursuing pilot careers? How can we capitalize on demographic trends? Retention: Is it a problem? What incentives would make pilots want to stay?

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