The Enlightenment - The Scientific Revolution

The Enlightenment - The Scientific Revolution

The Enlightenment - The Scientific Revolution Rachel Nostrant & Kenneth King The Enlightenment- The 5Ws What: the intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries marked by a celebration of the powers of the human reason, a keen interest in science, the promotion of religious toleration, desire to construct governments

free of tyranny. The 5Ws When: 17th and 18th Centuries Where: Europe (mostly Great Britain and France) and America Why: Questions and experimentation on government, lifestyle, etc. How: Through experimentation, and breathing room from the various governments, making possibilities limitless.

The 5Ws- Who Hume, David 1711 1776 Building his career after a nervous breakdown, Hume gained attention for his History of England and established a name for himself among Enlightenment thinkers while working at the British embassy in Paris. His best known work is the full three volumes of the Treatise of Human Nature. Kant, Immanuel 1724 1804 A Prussian who studied at the University of Konigsberg, Kant

became a professor of mathematics and philosophy. The Critique of Pure Reason, arguably his most famous work, is one of several key Enlightenment texts, including his era defining essay What is Enlightenment? The 5Ws- Who Locke, John 1632 1704 A key thinker of the early Enlightenment, English Locke was educated at Oxford. His Essay Concerning Human Understanding of 1690 challenged Descartes views and influenced later thinkers, and he helped pioneer views on toleration and produced views on government which would underpin later thinkers. Locke was

forced to flee England for Holland in 1683 because of his links to plots against the king. Montesquieu, Charles-Louis 1689 1755 Born into a prominent legal family, Montesquieu was a lawyer and president of the Bordeaux Parliament. He first came to the attention of the Parisian literary world with his satire Persian Letters, which tackled French institutions and the Orient, but is best known for Esprit des Lois, or The Spirit of the Laws. Published in 1748, this was an examination of different forms of government which became one of the most widely disseminated works of the Enlightenment, especially after the church added it to their banned list in 1751.

The 5Ws- Who Newton, Isaac 1642 1727 Although involved in alchemy and theology, it is Newtons scientific and mathematical achievements for which he is chiefly recognized. The methodology and ideas he set forth in key works like the Principia helped forge a new model for natural philosophy which the thinkers of the Enlightenment tried to apply to humanity and society.

Voltaire, Franois-Marie 1694 1778 Voltaire is one of, if not the, most dominant Enlightenment figures, and his death is sometimes cited as the end of the period. He was imprisoned early in his career for his satires and spent time exiled in England before a brief period as court historiographer to the French king. After this he continued to travel, finally settling on the Swiss border. He is perhaps best known today for his satire Candide. Comparisons

British vs. French Natural vs. Political Science French Enlightenment Reason is to the philosopher what grace is to the Christian Diderot Reason is paramount to French enlightenment thinkers. Drive and instinct have little to do with it. (Think Vulcan) The enlightenment is considered by many to have started with the French and led primarily

by them. British Enlightenment Reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions, and can never pretend to any other office then to serve and obey them. Hume The British enlightenment is driven by desire and instinct without which, they claim, we would not even be able to get out of bed

Similar Ideas Toleration of anything but intolerance. Constant inquiry. Question everything, Nature, God, and our own human nature. Freedom is treasured (especially freedom of thought and speech) Pursuit of knowledge should be supported Man is the main focus, not religion. Opposing Ideas Reason vs. Sentiment (again)

Human nature at its core. British-humans are inherently bad. French-humans are good and can perfect their existence. Some, in both camps, saw humans as both. The Sciences of the Enlightenment Two main scientific studies in the enlightenment, natural science and political science. Natural focuses on the environment aorund us and humanity as a whole.

Political focuses on government and its organization Political Science Big Players: John Locke (Magna Carta, inalienable rights) Montesquieu (Separation of powers, Checks and Balances) Rousseau (Social Contract, how decisions should be made) Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan, monarchy is necessary for order.) Frequently proposed government in the hands of the people (French Revolution and British Civil War in

1680s) The United States government is the by product of these philosophies. (except Hobbes) Natural Science Big Players: Newton (gravity, laws of motion) Rene Descartes (deductive reasoning) Francis Bacon (inductive reasoning) Led to breakthroughs in science and scientific study. Major product is Charles Darwins Theory of

Evolution Take Note ! Diderot- Thirty-Five volume Encyclopedia a culmination of human knowledge in the arts and sciences. Invention of Calculus by Newton and Leibniz Religion is almost completely separated from the state as a result of David Hume and Immanuel Kants work.

Study Guide 1) Who are the major British Enlightenment philosophers? a) Locke and Montesquieu b) Newton and Voltaire c) Locke and Newton d) Hume and Kant Study Guide

2) What major European city did the movement gain momentum in? a) London b) Milan c) Rome d) Paris Study Guide 3) What were the main thoughts of Enlightenment on? a) wealth and family

b) Government and science c) English supremacy d) French supremacy Study Guide 4) True/ False- Calculus was invented during the Enlightenment. Study Guide What/ Who were the Anglophiles? a) A person who loves the country, culture or

people of England or Britain b) A person who loves the country, culture or people of France c) A person who loves the country, culture or people of America d) A person who loves the country, culture or people of Prussia Study Guide Answers 1) 2)

3) 4) 5) C -Locke and Newton D -Paris B -Government and science True A- A person who loves the country, culture or people of England or Britain

Citations PHILOSOPHY NOW ,March/April 2003, pp. 17-19 , Copyright 2003 by Toni Vogel Carey. First published in PHILOSOPHY NOW. March/April 2003. Reprinted by permission of Stuart Bernstein Representation for Artists, New York. All rights reserved

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