The Flow of Food: Preparation

The Flow of Food: Preparation

Equipment Make sure workstations, cutting boards, and utensils are clean and sanitized Quantity Only remove as much food from the cooler as you can prep in a short period of time Storage Return prepped food to the

cooler, or cook it as quickly as possible Additives If you food or color additives: Only use additives that have been approved by your local regulatory authority NEVER use more than is allowed by law NEVER use additives to alter the appearance of the food

Do NOT sell produce that was treated with sulfites before it was received in the operation NEVER add sulfites to produce that will be eaten raw Presentation Food must be offered to customers in a way that does not mislead or misinform them. Customers must be able to judge the true appearance,

color and quality of food. Corrective Actions Food that has become unsafe must be thrown out unless it can be safely reconditioned. All food especially ready-to-eat foodmust be thrown out in the following situations: When it is handled by staff who have been restricted or excluded from the operation due to illness

When it is contaminated by hands or bodily fluids from the nose or mouth When it has exceeded the time and temperature requirements designed to keep food safe When frozen food is thawed and exposed to the temperature danger zone, pathogens in the food begin to grow. To reduce this growth,

NEVER thaw food at room temperature. There are 4 acceptable thawing methods. Refrigeration Thaw food in a cooler, keeping its temperature at 41F or lower Running Water

Submerge food under running, drinkable water at 70F or lower. The flow of the water must be strong enough to wash loose food bits into the drain. Always use a clean sanitized food-prep sink when thawing food NEVER let the temperature of the food go above 41F longer than four hours. This includes the time it takes to thaw the food plus the time it takes to prep or cool it.

Microwave Thaw food in a microwave oven if it will be cooked immediately after thawing. The food must be cooked in conventional cooking equipment, such as an oven, once its thawed

Cooking Thaw food as part of the cooking process Produce Cross contamination Make sure fruit and vegetables do NOT touch surfaces exposed to raw meat, seafood or poultry

Washing Wash produce under running water. This is especially important before cutting, cooking, or combining it with other ingredients. The water should be a little warmer than the produce. Certain chemicals may be used to wash fruits and vegetables. Produce Soaking or Storing When soaking or storing produce in

standing water or an ice-water slurry, do NOT mix different items or multiple batches of them some time. Fresh-cut produce Refrigerate and hold sliced melons, cut tomatoes and cut leafy greens at 41F or lower. Many operations hold other fresh-cut produce at this temperature as well. Raw seed sprouts

If your operation primarily serves high-risk populations, do NOT serve raw seed sprouts Eggs & Egg Mixtures Pooled Eggs Handle pooled eggs (if allowed by your local regulatory authority) carefully. Pooled eggs are cracked open and combined in a container. Cook them promptly after mixing, or store them at 41F

or lower. Clean and sanitize the containers used to hold them before making a new batch. Eggs & Egg Mixtures Pasteurized eggs Consider using pasteurized shell eggs or egg products when prepping egg dishes that need little or no cooking (like caesar salad dressing,

hollandaise sauce, tiramisu and mousse) High-risk Populations If you mainly serve high-risk populations use pasteurized eggs or egg produces when serving dishes that are raw or undercooked. Shell eggs that are pooled must also be pasteurized. You may use unpasteurized shell eggs if the dish will be cooked all the way through Salads Containing TCS Food

Chicken, tuna, egg, pasta and potato salads have all been involved in foodborne-illness outbreaks. These salads are not usually cooked after preparation. This means you do not have a chance to reduce pathogens (like Staph) that may have gotten into the salads. Follow these guidelines: Using leftovers: TCS food such as pasta, chicken and potatoes can be used only if it has been cooked, held, and cooled correctly Storing leftovers: Throw out leftover food held at 41F or lower after seven days. Check the use-by date before suing stored

food items. Ice Consumption: Make ice from water that is safe to drink Cooling food: NEVER use ice as an ingredient if it was used to keep food cold Containers and scoops: Use clean and sanitized containers and ice scoops to transfer ice from a machine to other containers. Store ice scoops outside of the ice machine in a clean, protected

location NEVER hold or carry ice in containers that have held raw meat, seafood, or poultry; or chemicals NEVER touch ice with hands or use a glass to scoop ice You will need a variance when prepping food in certain ways. A variance is a document issued by your regulatory authority that allows a regulatory requirement to be waived or changed. When applying for a variance, your regulatory

authority may require you to submit a HACCP plan (explained in ch 8). The plan must account for any food safety risks related to the way you plan to prep the food item. You will need a variance if your operation plans to prep food in any of the following ways. Packaging fresh juice on-site for sale at a later time, unless the juice has a

warning label. Smoking food as a way to preserve it (but not to enhance flavor) Using food additives or adding components such as vinegar to preserve or alter the food so that it no longer needs time and temperature control for safety Curing food Custom-processing animals for personal use. For

example, a hunter brings a deer to a restaurant for dressing and takes the meat home for later use. Packaging food using a reduced-oxygen packaging (ROP) method. This includes MAP, vacuum-packed, and sous vide food. Sprouting seeds or beans. Offering live shellfish from a display tank. The only way to reduce pathogens in food to safe

levels is to cook it to its minimum internal temperature. The temperature is different for each food. Once correct temperature is reached, you must hold the food at this temperature for a specific amount of time. While cooking reduces pathogens in food, it does not destroy spores or toxins they may have produced. Monitor the temperature of cooked food to

make sure it has reached the correct temperature. Minimum temperatures have been developed for TCS food. Poultryincluding whole or ground chicken, turkey or duck Stuffing made with fish, meat or poultry Stuffed meat, seafood, poultry,

or pasta Dishes that include previously cooked TCS ingredients (raw ingredients should be cooked to their minimum internal temperatures) Ground meatincluding beef, pork, and other meat Injected meatincluding brined ham and flavor-injected roasts Mechanically tenderized meat

Ratitesincluding ostrich and emu Ground seafoodincluding chopped or minced seafood Shell eggs that will be hot-held for service Seafoodincluding fish, shellfish, and crustaceans Steaks/chops of pork, beef, veal and lamb Commercially raised game Shell eggs that will be served immediately

Roasts of pork, beef, veal and lamb The following that will be hot-held for service: Fruits & vegetables Grains (rice, pasta) Legumes (beans, refried beans) Meat, seafood, poultry and eggs that you cook in a microwave must be cooked to 165F. In addition,

you must follow these guidelines: Cover the food to prevent its surface from drying out. Rotate or stir it halfway through the cooking process so that the heat reaches the food more evenly Let the covered food stand for at least two minutes after cooking to let the food temperature even out Check the temperature in at least two places to make sure that the food is cooked through Some operations partially cook food during prep and then

finish cooking it just before service, the following steps must be followed if your operation is going to do this: 1. Do not cook the food for longer than 60 minutes during initial cooking. 2. Cool the food immediately after initial cooking. 3. Freeze or refrigerate the food after cooling it. If refrigerating the food, make sure it is held at 41F or lower. 4. Heat the food to at least 165F for 15 seconds before selling or serving it. 5. Cool the food if it will not be served immediately or held for

service. You must cook TCS food to the minimum internal temperatures listed previously unless a customer requests otherwise. This might happen often in your operation, particularly if you serve meat, eggs, or seafood. If your menu includes TCS items that are raw or undercooked, you must note it on the menu next to

those items. This can be done by placing an asterisk next to the item that points customers to a footnote at the bottom of the menu. The footnote must include a statement that indicated the item is raw or undercooked, or contains raw or undercooked ingredients. You must advise customers who order food that is raw or undercooked of the increased

risk of food-borne illness. You can do this by posting a notice in your menu. You can also provide this information using brochures, table tents, signs or other written methods. The Food and Drug Administration advises against offering raw or undercooked meat, poultry,

seafood, or eggs on a childrens menu. This is especially true for undercooked ground beef, which may be contaminated with e coli. Operations that mainly serve a high-risk population, such as nursing homes or day-care centers, cannot serve certain items.

NEVER serve raw seed sprouts or raw or undercooked eggs, meat or seafood. Examples include over-easy eggs, raw oysters on the half shell, and rare hamburgers. Pathogens grow extremely fast between 125F and 70F, so its important that food passes through this temperature range quickly to reduce this growth

Food must be cooled from 135F to 41F or lower within six hours O T F 5 3 1

F 70 70F TO 41F Cool food from 135F to 70F within TWO HOURS

Then cool it from 70F to 41F or lower in the next FOUR HOURS. If food has not reached 70F within two hours, it must be reheated and then cooled again. If you can cool the food from 135F to 70F in less than two hours, you can use the remaining time to cool it to 41F or lower. The total cooling time cannot be longer than

six hours. 6 Thickness or density of the food The denser the food, the more slowly it will cool Size of the food Large food items cool more slowly than smaller items Reduce the side of the product to cool quicker

Storage container Stainless steel transfers heat away from food faster than plastic. Shallow pans let the heat from food disperse faster than deep pans NEVER cool large amounts of hot food in a cooler. Most coolers are not designed to cool large amounts of hot food quickly.

Ice- Water Bath After dividing food into smaller containers, place them in a clean prep sink or large pot filled with ice water. Stir the food frequently to cool it faster and more evenly Blast chiller

Blast chillers blast cold air across food at high speeds to remove heat. They are typically used to cool large amounts of food. Ice paddle Plastic paddles are available that can be filled with ice or with water and then frozen. Food stirred with these paddles will cool quickly.

Cool food even faster when placed in an icewater bath and stirred with an ice paddle. Ice or cold water as an ingredient When cooling soups or stews, the recipe is made with less water than required. Cold water or ice is then added after cooking to cool the food and provide the remaining water. Loosely cover food containers before storing them.

Food can be left uncovered if stored in a way that prevents contaminants from getting into it. Storing uncovered containers above other food, especially raw seafood, meat, and poultry, will help prevent cross-contamination. Food reheated for immediate service You can reheat food that will be served immediately, such as beef for a beef sandwich, to

any temperature. However, you must make sure the food was cooked and cooled correctly. Food reheated for hot-holding You must heat TCS food for hot-holding to an internal temperature of 165F for 15 seconds. Make sure the food reaches this temperature within two hours from start to finish. These guidelines apply to all reheating methods, such as ovens and microwaves.

Reheat commercially processed and packaged ready-to-eat food to an internal temperature of at least 135F. This includes items such as cheese sticks and deep-fried vegetables. What is the maximum water temperature allowed when thawing food under running water?

A. 70F B. 65F C. 60F D. 55F What must food handlers do to food immediately after thawing it in the microwave oven? A. Hold it. B. Cook it.

C. Cool it. D. Freeze it. What can occur if prep tables are not cleaned and sanitized between uses? A. Off flavors in food B. Cross-contamination C. Toxic-metal poisoning D. Time-temperature abuse

A food handler thaws several frozen turkeys on a prep table. What is the danger that this poses to the food? A. Off flavors in food B. Cross-contamination C. Toxic-metal poisoning D. Time-temperature abuse A food handler pulled a hotel pan of tuna

salad from the cooler and used it to prepare six tuna salad sandwiches. What is the problem with this situation? A. B. C. D. Cross-contamination Poor personal hygiene

Time-temperature abuse Poor cleaning and sanitizing What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for stuffed pork chops? A. 135F for 15 seconds B. 145F for 15 seconds C. 155F for 15 seconds D. 165F for 15 seconds

What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for eggs, meat, poultry, and seafood cooked in a microwave oven? A. 135F B. 145F C. 155F D. 165F

What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for eggs that will be hot-held for service? A. 135F for 15 seconds B. 145F for 15 seconds C. 155F for 15 seconds D. 165F for 15 seconds What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for ground

beef? A. 135F for 15 seconds B. 145F for 15 seconds C. 155F for 15 seconds D. 165F for 15 seconds Which food should not be offered on a childrens menu: a rare hamburger, fried chicken tenders, grilled cheese sandwich, or spaghetti with meat sauce?

A. Rare hamburger B. Fried chicken tenders C. Grilled cheese sandwich D. Spaghetti with meat sauce A food handler can cool a stockpot of clam chowder by placing it into a A. Cooler.

B. Freezer. C. Sink of ice water. D. Cold-holding unit. What temperature must TCS food be reheated to if it will be hotheld? A. 135F for 15 seconds B. 145F for 15 seconds C. 155F for 15 seconds D. 165F for 15 seconds

A food handler is reheating commercially processed cheese sticks, which will be hot-held on a buffet. What temperature must the cheese sticks be reheated to? A. 135F B. 145F C. 155F D. 165F

When reheating partially cooked food for service, what minimum internal temperature must be reached? A. 135F for 15 seconds B. 145F for 15 seconds C. 155F for 15 seconds D. 165F for 15 seconds

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