The Future of Wireless in Education Some Thoughts Peter M. Siegel CIO, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign [email protected] Networking 2001 Washington, DC April 11, 2001 One Taxonomy of Wireless - 1 Room- or building-specific wired classrooms or office suites little interference, put in what works, security manageable by negotiation Ethernet, campus provided
Campus-level (Ethernet) cost and security issues significant, but getting addressed soon important to know who is using the network scaling to >>1000 users Ethernet, campus provided One Taxonomy of Wireless - 2 Community Wireless Various protocols, industry-provided services Universities believe/hope that negotiation with local companies can lead to seamless services for campus community off-campus (Not borne out yet for cable or DSL) Wide-area (inter/national) Wireless As above Only hope is flexible, open approach to service
provision What else? Old news: Wireless means integrated voice and data The Web on PDAs: not very interesting per se More Important multimedia streaming to small devices asynchronous and synchronous services educational value <==> entertainment value Specialized services on a range of devices, not dumbeddown desktop services Next-Generation Wireless
Campus Managed: Extension of Wired Infrastructure >10 mbits now integrated with wireline billing now security, geographic location identification almost here Wide-area 3G Wireless 100s of kilobits mobile to mbits indoors billing standards developing security? Geographic location to be there Timing: Will companies recoup 2G system investments first? eLearning, eCollaboration, and Wireless eLearning & eCollaboration teach us students/faculty
need/want access to the best campus services even when off-campus or outside classroom settings First wave: Comparable speeds as on campus for basic services Wired apartments, homes High-speed access to local services over web to anywhere Second wave: Truly mobile access to services beyond the web Staying in asynchronous data contact >> synchronous voice contact Synchronous data contact: Learning communities in traditional locations (library) and non-traditional locations Integrated View of Wireless Services Universities must move from taking care of services they can own To working with industry to ensure that wide-area wireless interoperates with campus services, allowing: a consistent view of services by end-user
a small number of interfaces and protocols no blocking of required security (e.g. VPN) or other basic functions for consumer services Issue #1 Bottleneck: Its very hard to get information from industry regarding technical directions and timing Benefits of cooperating with academia early on appear less than in the past Churn in industry has obscured earlier joint successes means company contacts often do not know company technical plans means technical plans may change without warning makes it hard for universities to develop business models Issue #2 If industry-provided wireless is cheaper, more pervasive, and better, will campus-level
wireless have been a good investment? Academics want consistent access everywhere: work, home, roaming campus, roaming the world Services must work anywhere Answer depends on timing Issue #3 Same technologies are used for business and personally cell phone, PDA, computer, broadband services notion of managing uses by having duplicate devices and networks is not sensible, but often the case today for academics following the rules (e.g. state law) Issue #4 Ubiquitous, mobile computing is going to expand more rapidly than we think The services may be high-end today, but will be basic
to students, service workers, even faculty Business models for paying for services are still primitive Reliability and location-identification a major problem life safety issues, emergencies, tracking network attacks Issue #5 Security and Compliance is growing problem for education Conflict between anonymous access (library) and need to identify source of attacks/threats Some university lawyers: we must show due diligence in logging activity and tracking perpetrators Wireless, esp. from non-campus, services will exacerbate this (A variant on the hotmail problem) DMCA, HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability
Act), CIPA (Childrens Internet Protection Act), ...and the list goes on... Issue #6 Scalability Managing over wide range of customer densities Can we manage the wireless complex? Can we afford it? Can we bill for it effectively and cheaply? Issue #7 The digital divide is exacerbated by improvements in communications technology Haves vs Have-nots: Haves can learn all the time at home, play, experiment Have-nots must wait in line, work on task, and leave scarce public sites (school seats, libraries, etc) Universities may not be able to provide free access to community
because of security/compliance isues Cities vs. low-density areas Services may deploy years later (or never?) at enormous cost differences Promise of eLearning is in broad access Profitable low-hanging fruit is among those who can pay the premium Conclusion Wireless Technologies, as part of Ubiquitous Mobile Computing, becoming critical to academia Academia is technically-capable, innovation-oriented, and enthusiastic Reaching non-traditional students and communities, especially have-nots, needs more partnership among academia, government, industry Many issues remain that slow down the effective adoption/ deployment of these new technologies regulatory, cultural, financial, and technical
ITFS, 3G, and the NPRM Preserving and Developing Educations Spectrum for the 21st Century EDUCAUSE Kenneth D. Salomon Dow, Lohnes & Albertson, PLLC [email protected] What is ITFS ITFS = Instructional Television Fixed Service FCC designated 2.5 GHz for educational use 40 years ago Use by schools, colleges, universities, and other educational groups Nearly 1300 ITFS licensees: 331 colleges & universities with 752 licenses 738 k-12 schools (public and private) with 879 licenses 9 statewide networks
What is ITFS Used for Current Uses: Video broadcasting (used by millions of students at tens of thousands of locations) Professional development Future Uses: Wireless broadband at little or no cost to educational institutions Two-way digital video for interactive distance learning Wireless Wide Area Networking
Role of Commercial Partners Lease excess capacity from ITFS licensees Revenue sharing/equipment and technical support Shared network Use excess capacity to provide video or fixed wireless broadband services The only broadband option for some DSL/cable modem competition for others Two way authority makes spectrum more valuable to ITFS licensees What is 3G Next (third) generation cell phone service Provides data at faster speeds, but is not truly broadband Global standard although spectrum allocation varies from country to country
Several different standards evolving FCC NPRM on 3G 3G proponents claim an additional 160 MHz below 3GHz are required 2000 World Radio Conference identified 1.7 (DoD) and 2.5 (ITFS/MMDS) GHz bands as possible candidates Clinton October 2000 memorandum NTIA and FCC Final Staff Reports March 30, 2001 http://www.fcc.gov/3G/ What is the Problem? The 160 MHz of additional spectrum below 3 GHz is NOT available unless existing users are relocated by the FCC or NTIA A prime band under review is used by ITFS There is a very real risk that ITFS will be
relocated to much less desirable frequency Threatens continued revenues/equipment support from commercial providers and roll out of high speed wireless access Comments on 2.5 GHz Band With regard to ITFS, the FCC asks: Could a portion of the ITFS/MMDS band be made available to new entities? If so, how much spectrum, and where in the band? Could incumbent ITFS/MMDS licensees be accommodated in other bands? Comments on 2.5 GHz (contd) If so, what procedures would apply to the relocated ITFS/MMDS licensees? Expense reimbursement, alternative facilities, etc.
Would allowing ITFS and MMDS licensees to provide mobile service be beneficial without reallocating the spectrum to other licensees? Who Else is Involved? Other policy makers involved: --Congress --White House -- Department of Commerce -- Department of Education WEB NOW Campaign Wireless Educational Broadband Now or WEB NOW Campaign Website: www.itfs.org/webnow NIA and ITFS Spectrum Alliance Working with Catholic Television Network
100+ National, State, Local Members EDUCAUSE Both Washington and Grassroots Targeting FCC, Congress, NTIA, White House WEB NOW Campaign Washington LobbyingVisits, Letters and Calls FCC and on the Hill FCC Comments and Reply Comments Letters to Secretaries Paige and Evans Media Grassroots The Future of Wireless in Education
Bill Lane Chief Technologist Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Federal Communications Commission Todays Plan Framing the issues How your Federal Communications Commission (FCC) fits in! The search for 3G spectrum & why all this is important to you! The Enterprise Environment Source: Drew and Dillinger, Evolution Toward Reconfigurable User Equipment, IEEE Communications Magazine, February 2001 The Convergence Issue! WAP
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 84 85 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 000 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 (e (e (e (e (e (e (e (e (e
(e ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Source: Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association and Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette Penetration Millions of Subscribers 200
Part of the Spectrum Issue Spectrum Identified by ITU for IMT-2000 Near 2 GHz 175 1700 1750 1800 140 1850 1900 1950
WRC-2000 90 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 WARC-92 M Hz US Spectrum Use Near 2GHz 95
10 85 Satellite 35 35 45 40 PCS 1700 60
1750 1800 1850 20 1900 5 60 1950 MHz 2000
2050 2100 2150 2200 PCS Mobile PCS Unlic PCS Base Prop. Adv. Srvc. MSS Uplink MSS Downlink Govt Govt/Bcast Aux MDS
The Wireless Access Issue WLAN Data Rate Spectrum Bluetooth 1 Mbps 802.11b 11 Mbps 802.11a 54 Mbps
2.4 GHz Unlicensed! Unlicensed! 2.4 GHz Part Part 15! 15! 5.0 GHz 802.11g 22 Mbps 2.4 GHz Part 15 No harmful interference caused and received interference accepted Limited power
Must accede to primary licensed users The FCC Established by the Communications Act of 1934 Independent agency of U.S. government Responsible to Congress Charged with establishing policy to govern interstate and international communications by television, radio, wire, satellite, and cable Note: Note: Government Government use use is is handled handled by by the the National National Telecommunications Telecommunications
and and Information Information Administration Administration (NTIA), (NTIA), Dept. Dept. of of Commerce Commerce Headed by five Commissioners, each appointed by the President, with one designated as Chairman Chairman Michael Powell (R) Commissioner Susan Ness (D) [Kathleen Abernathy] Commissioner Gloria Tristani (D) Commissioner Harold Furchtgott-Roth (R) [Kevin Martin] [Michael Copps] The FCC Seven
Seven Bureaus Bureaus WTB Ten Ten Offices Offices Administrative Law Judges Engineering and Technology Inspector General Managing Director Plans and Policy Cable Services Bureau Common Carrier Bureau Consumer Information Bureau Enforcement Bureau International Bureau Mass Media Bureau
Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Communications Business Opportunities General Counsel Legislative and Intergovernmental Affairs Media Relations Workplace Diversity Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Responsible for all FCC domestic wireless telecommunications programs & policies except satellite communications or broadcasting. Provide information, licensing, rulemaking, data storage for: Cellular telephones Paging services Personal communications services Public safety Commercial wireless services Private wireless services Auction spectrum
The Process Notice of Inquiry (NOI): Gather information, generate ideas Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM): Propose rule changes and seek public comment Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (FNPRM): seek further public comment on specific issues Report and Order (R&O): issue new rules, amend existing rules, make decisions not to do so; entered in Federal Register Petition for Reconsideration: Dissatisfied with issue resolution, within 30 days file for reconsideration Memorandum Opinion and Order (MO&O): response to petition for reconsideration Core U.S. Goals for Spectrum Management
Maximize efficient use of radio spectrum Promote competition Expand access Protect and promote the public interest Ensure ability of operators to adapt to new technologies, new services and new market needs Source: FCC Principles for Reallocation of Spectrum to Encourage the Development of Telecommunications Technologies for the New Millenium, 18 NOV 99 Goal Implementation In the U.S., these core goals are achieved by: Allowing for flexible spectrum uses Enabling multiple competing technologies
Minimizing the number of rules to eliminate harmful interference to promote competition Using auctions to assign licenses Communications Act of 1934 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 Telecommunications Act of 1996 Balanced Budget Act of 1997 Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 Policy Implications - Flexibility
Allowing flexibility in spectrum usage means that: License uses should not be restricted except to prevent interference (e.g., authorize fixed as well as mobile, data as well as voice) Operators should be allowed to evolve to more advanced services Policy Implications - Technology Neutrality Technology Neutrality means that: Multiple & competing technologies are allowed and encouraged Industry takes the lead in achieving interoperability/harmonization/standardization Innovation is encouraged and led by industry US Allows 2G Licensees To Evolve Into 3G Providers
Incumbent services, such as cellular, PCS and ESMR, have regulatory flexibility to evolve to advanced services, such as IMT2000 However, merely granting regulatory flexibility to allow incumbents to deploy advanced services may not be sufficient to respond to anticipated demand 1 700-2690 MHZ BAND PRESENT AND PLANNED USE SAT PCS BASE G/NG 2010
2500 ADDITIONAL IMT-2000 SATELLITE (141 MHz) 2600 2700 1525 - 1559 1610 -1660.5 2483.5 - 2500 2500 - 2520 2670 - 2690 Three U.S. Goals for WRC-2000 Identify more than one band pair for IMT-2000
use. Different countries have different needs for mobile spectrum. Allow nations to choose among bands that are equally appropriate for IMT-2000 use. Mandatory harmonization stifles competition and technological development. Adopt a technologically-neutral band allocation. Industry decisions should rest on sound engineering, not on arbitrary government decisions. Results of WRC-2000 WRC-2000 adopted an equitable, multiband, technologically neutral approach for IMT-2000. Bands Identified for IMT-2000: 806-960 MHz (WRC-00, (WRC-00, FN FN S5.XXX
S5.XXX )) 1885-2025 MHz and 2110-2200 MHz (WARC-92, (WARC-92, FN FN S5.388) S5.388) 1710-1885 MHz and 2500-2690 MHz FN FN S5.AAA S5.AAA Bottom Line - Need 160 MHz! (WRC-00, (WRC-00,
United States Considering New Allocations for Advanced Services In December 2000 NPRM, FCC proposed allocating: 2110-2150 MHz 2160-2165 MHz 1710-1755 MHz Auction by 2002 Study Alternative Bands 1755-1850 MHz (Current DoD spectrum) 2500-2690 MHz (Current MDS/ITFS) 1755-1850 MHz in the U.S. DoD telecommand, telemetry and control of military satellites Military tactical radio-relay Government fixed microwave
Military instrumented ranges Naval ship-ship, ship-shore digital wideband voice and data links Study Result: Some limited sharing possible; ~$ 4-5B relocation costs; long time frame 2500-2690 MHz in the U.S. High-speed fixed wireless Multichannel Multipoint Distribution System (MMDS) Instructional Fixed Television Service (ITFS) Former one-way multi-channel video programming providers prepare to launch two-way wireless broadband services Study Result: Sharing not possible; relocation unlikely; ~$ 10-30 B to relocate Next Steps for Additional
3G Allocations FCC NPRM on Additional 3G Spectrum issued December 2000 FCC and NTIA Final Sharing Reports Published in March 2001 FCC Report and Order on Additional 3G Spectrum by 3rd Quarter 2001 FCC Auction of Additional 3G Spectrum by 3rd Quarter 2002 700 MHz Band Auction of licenses in the 747-762 and 777-792 MHz band scheduled for September 2001 Bands slated for auction can be used to provide a wide range of advanced wireless services, including IMT-2000 Relocation of existing users (TV) and protection of public safety important issues for these bands
3G Additional Steps In November 2000, FCC issued NPRM on promoting secondary markets in spectrum (Report and Order expected in 2001) In December 2000, FCC issued NPRM on CMRS Spectrum Cap (Report and Order expected in 2001) In December 2000, FCC issued NPRM on software defined radio Comments on Studies due April 16, 2001 Conclusion FCC is sensitive to the issues at hand! Following an equitable, regionally coherent and technologically neutral approach for IMT-2000:
Maximizes efficient use of radio spectrum Promotes competition among users Allows industry to implement new technologies and new services Converging services and public demand can be accommodated Federal Communications Commission Home Page: http://www.fcc.gov/ Electronic Filing System: http://www.fcc.gov/e-file/ Bill Lane WTB, FCC Phone: 202-418-0676 Email: [email protected]
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