The Humanistic Perspective of Personality From Freud, to the Big 5, to Bandura, to the Ideal Self Humanistic Psychologists Focus on conscious experiences Focus on an individuals own ability to change attitudes and behavior (free will) Focus on personal responsibility and growth (internal locus of control)
Have an optimistic perspective on human nature Thought psychology should focus on human strengths and virtues Abraham Maslow and Personality Said personality comes from the pursuit of meeting our Hierarchy of Needs The pyramid of physiological (food/water) and psychological
(love/esteem) needs Ultimately our goal is to obtain our full potential self-actualization the pursuit of realizing ones potential that defines personality Said most people dont reach full potential because they lose focus of the pursuit because they strive for materialistic, meaningless goals Maslow developed his ideas by studying what he termed healthy people
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualized People They share certain characteristics: They are self aware and self accepting Open and spontaneous Loving and caring Not paralyzed by others opinions. They are secure in who they are. They enjoy work and see work as a mission
to fulfill Self-Actualized People Problem centered rather than self-centered. Focused their energies on a particular task. Few deep relationships, rather than many superficial ones. Carl Rogers: The Importance of
Humanistic psychologistSelf who agreed with Maslow Believed people are basically GOOD and are like seeds We are like seeds Need Water, Sun and Nutrients to Grow into a big healthy plant We need acceptance,genuineness, and empathy for us to grow. AGE
Acceptance Unconditional Positive Regard: An attitude of acceptance regardless of circumstances. Accepting yourself or others completely regardless of behavior at that time. Rogers believed that many parents display what he called conditional positive regard children only feel accepted when they are pleasing others
Genuineness Being open with your own feelings. Dropping your guard. Being transparent and self-disclosing. Empathy Listening, sharing, understanding and mirroring feelings
and reflecting their meanings. Assessing Personality from a Humanistic Perspective Humanistic psychologists evaluate your personality by looking at your self-concept (or self-identity) How did Rogers assess personality?
How YOU saw yourself and how you would personally answer the question WHO AM I? #1 - ask clients to describe their self-concept #2 ask them how they would ideally like to be When your ideal self and your self-concept are alike you are generally happy. Assessing your Self-Concept
ME Or my self-concept My Ideal Self Self-Concept Both Rogers and Maslow believed that your self-concept is at the center of your personality. If our self concept is positive. We tend to act and perceive the world positively.
If our self-concept is negative. We fall short of our ideal self and feel dissatisfied and unhappy Rogers said that often peoples selfconcepts dont exactly match reality Congruence a fairly accurate match between the self-concept and reality Incongruence the difference between the self-concept and reality
Results of Incongruence can experience anxiety when self-concepts are threatened therefore people distort their experiences to hold on to their self-concept Sometimes to hold on to our Selfconcept we use a Self-Serving Bias A readiness to perceive oneself favorable. People accept more responsibility for successes than failures. Most people see
themselves as better than average. 79% thought Mother Teresa would go to heaven vs. 87% thought they would Does culture play a part in our personality and our self-identity? (according to humanistic psychologists) Individualism: giving priority to ones own
goals over group goals. Defining your identity in terms of yourself. the squeaky wheel gets the grease Collectivism: giving priority to the goals of a group and defining your identity as part of that group. the quaking duck gets shot Which is really better? Criticisms of Humanistic
Theory Overly optimistic and unrealistic view of human nature Maslows self-actualized people are almost perfect a hard time finding any self-actualized people) (had Like psychodynamic hard to test Believers say this isnt a problem you cant test peoples journey to ideal self
What is a healthy person? concept may just reflect Maslows own values and ideals What is a loving and productive person??
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