The Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna - DECIGO

The Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna - DECIGO

The Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna DECIGO TAUP2007 @Sendai, Japan Aug 11, 2007 Seiji Kawamura, Masaki Ando, Takashi Nakamura, Kimio Tsubono, Takahiro Tanaka, Ikkoh Funaki, Naoki Seto, Kenji Numata, Shuichi Sato, Nobuyuki Kanda, Takeshi Takashima, Kunihito Ioka, Kazuhiro Agatsuma, Tomotada Akutsu, Tomomi Akutsu, Koh-suke Aoyanagi, Koji Arai, Yuta Arase, Akito Araya, Hideki Asada, Yoichi Aso, Takeshi Chiba, T oshikazu Ebisuzaki, Motohiro Enoki, Yoshiharu Eriguchi, Masa-Katsu Fujimoto, Ryuichi Fujita, Mitsuhiro Fukushim a, Toshifumi Futamase, Katsuhiko Ganzu, Tomohiro Harada, Tatsuaki Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Hayama, Wataru Hikida, Yoshiaki Himemoto, Hisashi Hirabayashi, Takashi Hiramatsu, Feng-Lei Hong, Hideyuki Horisawa, Mizuhiko Hosoka wa, Kiyotomo Ichiki, Takeshi Ikegami, Kaiki T. Inoue, Koji Ishidoshiro, Hideki Ishihara, Takehiko Ishikawa, Hideharu Ishizaki, Hiroyuki Ito, Yousuke Itoh, Shogo Kamagasako, Nobuki Kawashima, Fumiko Kawazoe, Hiroyuki Kirihara, N aoko Kishimoto, Kenta Kiuchi, Shiho Kobayashi, Kazunori Kohri, Hiroyuki Koizumi, Yasufumi Kojima, Keiko Kokeya ma, Wataru Kokuyama, Kei Kotake, Yoshihide Kozai, Hideaki Kudoh, Hiroo Kunimori, Hitoshi Kuninaka, Kazuaki Kuroda, Kei-ichi Maeda, Hideo Matsuhara, Yasushi Mino, Osamu Miyakawa, Shinji Miyoki, Mutsuko Y. Morimoto, To moko Morioka , Toshiyuki Morisawa, Shigenori Moriwaki, Shinji Mukohyama, Mitsuru Musha, Shigeo Nagano, Isao N aito, Noriyasu Nakagawa, Kouji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Nakano, Kenichi Nakao, Shinichi Nakasuka, Yoshinori Nakayam a, Erina Nishida, Kazutaka Nishiyama, Atsushi Nishizawa, Yoshito Niwa, Masatake Ohashi, Naoko Ohishi, Masashi O hkawa, Akira Okutomi, Kouji Onozato, Kenichi Oohara, Norichika Sago, Motoyuki Saijo, Masaaki Sakagami, Shin-ich iro Sakai, Shihori Sakata, Misao Sasaki, Takashi Sato, Masaru Shibata, Hisaaki Shinkai, Kentaro Somiya, Hajime Sot ani, Naoshi Sugiyama, Yudai Suwa, Hideyuki Tagoshi, Kakeru Takahashi, Keitaro Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, H irotaka Takahashi, Ryuichi Takahashi, Ryutaro Takahashi, Takamori Akiteru, Tadashi Takano, Keisuke Taniguchi, At sushi Taruya, Hiroyuki Tashiro, Mitsuru Tokuda, Masao Tokunari, Morio Toyoshima, Shinji Tsujikawa, Yoshiki Tsun esada, Ken-ichi Ueda, Masayoshi Utashima, Hiroshi Yamakawa, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Toshitaka Yamazaki, Jun'ichi Yokoyama, Chul-Moon Yoo, Shijun Yoshida, Taizoh Yoshino What is DECIGO? Deci-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (Kawamura, et al., CQG 23 (2006) S125-S131) Bridges the gap between LISA and terrestrial detectors Low confusion noise Extremely high sensitivity Strain [Hz-1/2]

10-18 10-20 10-22 10-24 Ab have ov e L mov ISA ed ba LISA nd w int ill m o T ov Db e an d Terrestrial detectors (e.g. LCGT) DECIGO Confusion Noise 10-4

10-2 100 102 Frequency [Hz] 104 Pre-conceptual design Differential FP interferometer Arm length: 1000 km Mirror diameter: 1 m Laser wavelength 0.532 m Finesse: 10 Laser power: 10 W Mirror mass: 100 kg S/C: drag free 3 interferometers Laser Photodetector Drag-free S/C Mirror Arm cavity Arm cavity Shot noise

Transponder type (e.g. LISA) f1 oi se Shorten arm length Sh ot n oi se re su res Shot noise Implement FP cavity f1 np tio dia -2 Ra se f i no

re su res np tio dia -2 Ra se f i no Strain Shorten arm length Sh ot n Transponder type (e.g. LISA) Why FP cavity? Implement FP cavity FP cavity type Frequency Better bestsensitivity Drag free and FP cavity: compatible?

S/C I S/C II Mirror FP cavity and drag free : compatible? Relative position between mirror and S/C S/C II Local sensor S/C I Mirror Thruster Thruster Drag free and FP cavity: compatible? Relative position between mirror and S/C S/C II Local

sensor S/C I No signal mixture Mirror Thruster Thruster Actuator Interferometer output (GW signal) Orbit and constellation (preliminary) Earth Correlation for stochastic background Record disk Sun Increase angular resolution Goal Sensitivity and Science 10-19 5 years 1 unit

3 months NS bin Acceleration ar y of Universe Shot noise (z= 1) Correlation Dark energy (3 years) Inflation Coalescence is no re e Strain [Hz-1/2] Coalescence su res 10-23 np t io

Verification of inflation 10-22 dia Ra Formation of 10-20 Supermassive BH 10-21 B (10 H b ina 00 ry M z =1 ) 10-24 10-25 10-26 -3 10 10-2 10-1 1

10 Frequency [Hz] 102 103 Requirements Acceleration noise should be suppressed below radiation pressure noise Force noise: DECIGO = LISA/50 (Acceleration noise in terms of h: 1, Distance: 1/5000, Mass: 100) Fluctuation of magnetic field, electric field, gravitational field, temperature, pressure, etc. Sensor noise should be suppressed below shot noise. Phase noise: DECIGO = LCGT10 (Sensor noise in terms of h: 1, storage time: 10) Frequency noise, intensity noise, beam jitter, etc. Thruster system should satisfy range, noise, bandwidth, and durability. Roadmap

200 08 7 09 10 11 12 13 Mission R&D Fabrication 14 15 16 17 18 19 R&D Fabrication

DICIGO Pathfinder (DPF) Ando s talk 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 R&D Fabrication Pre-DECIGO DECIGO Objectives Scope Test of key technologies Detection of GW w/ minimum spec. Test FP cavity between S/C

Full GW astronomy 1 S/C 1 arm 3 S/C 1 interferometer 3 S/C, 3 interferometer 3 or 4 units Interim organization PI: Kawamura (NAOJ) Deputy: Ando (Tokyo) Executive Committee Kawamura (NAOJ), Ando (Tokyo), Seto (NAOJ), Nakamura (Kyoto), Tsu bono (Tokyo), Tanaka (Kyoto), Funaki (ISAS), Numata (Merryland), Sato (NAOJ), Kanda (Osaka city), Takashima (ISAS), Ioka (Kyoto) Pre-DECIGO Sato (NAOJ) Detector Science, Data Numata (Merryla nd) Ando (Tokyo) Tanaka (Kyoto)

Seto (NAOJ) Kanda (Osaka city) Satellite Funaki (ISAS) Design phase DECIGO pathfinder Leader: Ando (Tokyo) Deputy: Takashima (ISAS) Mission phase Detector Laser Housing Drag free Thruster Bus Data Ando (Tokyo) Ueda (ILS) Musya (ILS) Sato (NAOJ)

Moriwaki (To kyo) Sakai (ISAS) Funaki (ISAS) Takashima (ISAS) Kanda (Osaka city) Current status There are now 140 members from 50 institutes in DECIGO working group Budget request (DECIGO R&D and fabrication of DPF, $20M, 6 years) was rejected. We will submit budget request (R&D for DECIGO and DP, $10M, 5-6 years) this year again. DPF working group was formally approved by JAXA/ISAS. Budget request (R&D for DPF, $65K, 1 year) to JAXA/ISAS was approved. Summary DECIGO can not only bridge the gap between terrestrial detectors and LISA, but also open a very deep window at 0.1 10 Hz. DECIGO will use FP arm cavity to further improve the sensitivity.

We have obtained some budget to initiate R&D for DPF. We hope that we will obtain a bigger budget for DECIGO R&D, and that DPF mission will be approved soon! Acceleration of Expansion of the Universe Expansion Acceleration? NS-NS (z 1) DECIGO GW Output Strain Template (No Acceleration) Real Signal ? Phase Delay 1sec (10 years) Time Seto, Kawamura, Nakamura, PRL 87, 221103 (2001) Ground-based simulator (juggling interferometer)

Position ~2m Continually Freely falling Moving up and down Realize continual free-fall condition Measure force noise Test clamp release system High GW sensitivity at 0.1 10 Hz Might be applied to future terrestrial detectors Clamp ~ 1 sec Hold Release Hold Release Hold

Release Time Fortune Cookie History of DECIGO 1999 the LISA study group convened by Tsubono 2000 Short-arm space antenna suggested by Kawamura 2001 Space GW antenna WG convened as one of the possible future projects in NAOJ 2001 Named as DECIGO in the PRL paper 2002 1st DECIGO workshop 2003 2nd DECIGO workshop (FP-type DECIGO suggested by Ando) 2005 3rd DECIGO workshop 2006 4th DECIGO workshop (FP-type DECIGO adopted as a pre-conceptual desig n) 2007 5th DECIGO workshop

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