Introduction to the AP Exam, Rhetoric and Stylistic Devices AP Language and Composition 1st!!!! Create a college board account!! www.collegeboard.org
The AP Language Exam Before we begin the course, please read a full description of the course on College Board's website. The AP Language Exam O Today you will read an entire exam and
reflect on the expectations of the course. The first part of the exam is Multiple Choice. Every essay you will read will be non-fiction and will cover the 17th century to the present. Then you will be introduced to the 3 different types of essays on the exam: the synthesis essay, the rhetorical analysis essay, and the argumentative essay. The AP Language Exam
O Throughout this course you will be taught how to read nonfiction and respond to it accordingly. You will also be taught how to write each of the essays. The course will begin with non-fiction reading and the rhetorical analysis essay. The AP Language Exam O AP Langauge Sample Exam
O Please click on the words above. This link will take you to a post from The College Board. Carefully read pages 13-48. O Page 13 is a brief overview of the exam followed by multiple choice questions and 4 essays. The AP Language Exam O The AP exam focuses around rhetoric, the art
of language. A person with good rhetorical skills is an effective communicator; they know how to use language to clearly express what they wish to convey. Rhetorical analysis involves the study of rhetoric and how others have used language to convey their meaning; we look at what is said as well as how it is said.
The AP Language Exam O Throughout this entire course we will focus on the power of rhetoric: we will learn how to properly analyze and write about rhetoric, and we will learn the value of honing our own rhetorical skills. In May, you will put all that you have learned to the test - literally! - when you take the AP Language and Composition exam. Pay close attention as you move through the items in this
folder as they will provide you with the critical foundation that you need on this important concept. The Conventions of Rhetoric An Amateurs Guide to Rhetorical Elements of Style What is Rhetoric? O The Oxford American Dictionary defines
rhetoric as the art of effective speaking or writing; language designed to persuade or impress; eloquence, way with words, gift of gab. Ordinarily speaking, rhetoric is the art of writing and speaking persuasively, compellingly. It is made up of all of those strategies and techniques a writer
will use to make a case, tell a story, or drive home a point. All of us are occasionally speakers and writers who try to sway, influence, or impress a point upon an audience, and can therefore benefit from mastering the art of rhetorical expression. In other words, rhetoric deals with HOW we say or write what
we say or write, and how those decisions affect our writing as a whole. Rhetorical Analysis cannot only help us better understand contextual meaning of texts that we read, but will also help us to identify those conventions of writing that, if properly
employed, will help developing young writers improve the quality and clarity of their own writing. Conventions? What conventions? Some conventions of style include syntax
(sentence structure) diction (word choice) point of view language devices
tone imagery figures of speech grammar & phrasing
parallelisms repetition presentation of detail organization
Syntax O Deals with the grammatical arrangement of words - whether the subject is at the front or back of the sentence, whether the passage is written in passive or active voice, whether the sentence structure is simple, compound, or complex. Diction...
O Refers to the authors choice of words, which can be presented on three different levels formal (elevated), informal (every-day), and colloquial (slang / jargon). Point of View O Often confused with tone, point of view deals mostly with consideration of other
viewpoints, and is seen most often in the narrative or fiction genre. Sometimes and author will explore point of view in writing in order to establish a sense of audience Language Devices O The English language truly is a masterpiece of poetry in motion. The sounds and images that we can create just by manipulating
consonant sounds or through the repetition of vowel sounds (or via the infamous onomatopoeia) is tied intricately to meaning. Tone... O This element stands alone on the Rhetorical Triangle, yet can be thought of in terms of style. Generally, the tone is the overall attitude the author has
towards his / her subject matter - happy and carefree, or serious and condescending? Silly and enigmatic, or melancholy and desolate? No matter what the form of writing, the tone is key to readers perceptions of the authors message. Imagery O Tied to description and playing on humankinds
natural tendency to visualize every piece of information that we take in, creating imagery through the use of language is crucial to inviting the reader in to stay a while, to asking them to not only read what youve written, but to become a part of it themselves, to relate what youve written to their own existence. Figures of Speech
O From euphemisms to colloquialisms, similes to metaphors, hyperbole to personification, figures of speech play an important role in any writers work. They help the writer to go beyond just saying what they have to say; figures of speech help them say it with style! Grammar / Phrasing O Getting the right word in the right place or the
right phrase in the right space represents the poetic nature of the written word. The very nature of the English language offers writers the liberty of changing word order - the location of the subject and predicate, of the object or preposition - for the purpose of emphasis. An authors choice in phrasing can give huge clues to his or her meaning.
Parallelisms O The precision of parallel structure not only offers a sense of balance in a sentence or piece of writing, but it can also be used to emphasize style, voice, or meaning in a writers work. Other times, writers choose NOT to create parallel structure in order to force the readers attention to a detail or point - to throw them intentionally off balance.
Repetition O Ever since Pavlov and his dogs demonstrated that repetition is a key to remembrance, everyone has followed suit, from parents to teachers to dog trainers. Good writers have figured out that repetition grabs the readers attention, first of all, and then aids in the readers remembrance of their main points, or
an image, or other aspect of their writing. Presentation of Detail O Details are the spice of life. We dont want to just know that the schools hottest couple has broken up - we want all the juicy tidbits of the how and where and why. The way an author chooses to present details - vivid and exciting or mechanical and matter of fact will reveal much about the authors meaning
and intentions. Through careful analysis of an authors style, we can not only make connections between style and meaning, but we can apply that same connection to our own writing, which will help us to make conscious decisions about our own writing
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