The Middle Ages The Middle Ages SSWH7a explain the manorial system and feudalism, to include the status of peasants and feudal monarchies and the importance of Charlemagne When? 476 (fall of Roman Empire) to 1500s
What? Between 400-600, small Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces Germanic Invasions!!! IMPACT OF GERMANIC INVASIONS Disruption of Trade
Invasions & wars disrupted trade Breakdown of trade destroyed Europes cities as economic centers Downfall of Cities Cities were abandoned as centers of administration after the fall of the Roman Empire Population Shifts People abandoned cities as trade & govt collapsed
Population of western Europe became mostly rural Decline of Learning Normal people became illiterate Invaders were illiterate Only the clergy continued to read and write No Common Language Latin mixed with others to form new languages
The View Government Changes BEFORE INVASIONS AFTER INVASIONS Loyalty to public govt and written law Society held together through citizenship Society held together
through family ties & personal loyalty Small communities with unwritten laws and traditions Gave no credit to officials claiming to administer justice in the name of an emperor or king they had never met KINGDOM OF THE FRANKS
Clovis Brought Christianity to the Franks & unified the Franks into one kingdom The Church supported him, marking the beginning of the partnership between two very powerful forces Charles Martel Gained political power when Clovis died The Moors (Muslims) from Spain attacked the Franks defeated Muslims at the Battle of Tours
Pepin the Short (Younger) Charles Martels son Fought the Lombards, who invaded Italy, on behalf of the Church Charlemagne Becomes Emperor Pepin the Short died in 768 Charles took over in 771 and ruled until 814
Became known as Charlemagne (Charles the Great) Charlemagne Becomes Emperor Who is Charlemagne? Charlemagnes Accomplishments Charlemagne reunited Western
Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire By 800, his empire was larger than the Byzantine Empire Effectively governed a unified kingdom Charlemagnes
Accomplishments Spread Christianity throughout his lands Crowned Emperor of the Romans by the Pope This was important because it was the first time a Pope had crowned a king and it signaled the joining of Germanic power, the Church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire Promoted Education Required all clergy to be educate
Charlemagnes Death Charlemagnes Death Died in 814, left empire to his son Louis the Pious What Happened Next The three sons of Louis fought for power, eventually split the kingdom into 3 parts Temporary peace Lack of strong rulers led to the rise of feudalism
STOP AND JOT 7 MINS: COMPLETE THE Who is Charlemagne? ACTIVITY Activity 1.What is Feudalism? 2.Group roles: As a group, complete the guided reading: Life in
Medieval Times. Feudalism What led to it? Constant brutal fighting amongst nobles What was it? Political system in which nobles were granted the
use of land that legally belonged to the king In return, the nobles agreed to give their loyalty and military services to the king. Developed not only in Europe, but in countries like Japan and China also The Feudal System Based on rights & obligations
In exchange for military & other services, a lord (landowner) granted land (fief) to a vassal (person receiving fief) The Feudal Pyramid Feudal Social Classes Three Groups: Those Who Fought Nobles & Knights
Those Who Prayed Men and Women of the Church Those Who Worked Peasants (vast majority of people in Europe during Middle Ages) Most peasants were serfs (lowest social class) People who could not lawfully leave the place they were born They were bound to the land, but were not slaves because their lords could not buy or sell them. However, what their labor produced belonged to the lord
The Manorial System Manors Self-contained communities that dotted the countryside throughout western Europe The Manorial System Economic Arrangement Between Lord & Serf In exchange for housing, land, and protection, serfs had to perform tasks to maintain the estate and pay
several different kinds of taxes The Manorial System Serfs The manor was practically selfsufficient, producing almost everything needed for daily life, so serfs rarely had to leave their manor for anything Outside purchases included salt, iron, and a few unusual objects like millstones (used to grind flour)
So why did they accept their economic hardship? Acceptance was part of Church teachings They believed that God decided peoples social position
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