The National Policy - ROOM 112

The National Policy - ROOM 112

THE NATIONAL POLICY THE NATIONAL POLICY In 1879 John A. MacDonald, the Prime Minister of Canada, put in place a National Policy to encourage the economic development of the Dominion of Canada. Cause of the National Policy: You gots a problem? I got your solution!!...

Canadian Economic Crisis (1873-1879): American Competition: the sale of American products in Canada market make it harder for Canadian industries to develop. Price of Raw Materials was decreasing: the price of wheat and wood was decreasing, hurting the Canadian economy which was heavily reliant on the sale of these raw materials. THE GOALS OF THE NATIONAL POLICY The National Policy is a protectionist policy that aims at protecting the

Canadian economy from American competition. The Three goals of the National Policy: 1. Increased customs duties: impose protectionist tariffs in order to increase the price of American products and encourage the buying of Canadian goods. 2. Expansion of the Railroad: the construction of the transcontinental railway would allow for the provinces to be connected, facilitating trade and immigration. 3. Increase Immigration: colonise the territory in the West by encouraging immigration.

1. CAN YOU SPOT THE DIFFERENCES? 2. WHAT IS THE MESSAGE OF THIS POSTER? COLONIZATION OF WESTERN CANADA In 1871 the majority of the Canadian population was found in Ontario and Quebec (75%) The MacDonald government

wanted to encourage immigration towards the West so they promised 160 acres of free land to all new immigrants. Between 1871 and 1891 the population of the West quadrupled, but the majority of the new arrivals came from Ontario. THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY

In 1880 the Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) was created and the construction of the transcontinental railway began. In 1885 the railway network was completed. The new rail network facilitated the circulation of goods and people within the country: it favored colonization and economic development. **Textbook p. 94: Challenges and human exploitation NITRO REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. What measure was adopted by the MacDonald government in order to counter competition from the American businesses? 2. What were the three objectives of the National Policy? 3. What type of economic policy was imposed in 1879? 4. What is the link between the development of the transcontinental railway and the economic development of the Dominion of Canada? 5. What were the three main railway networks in the Dominion of Canada at the end of the 19th century? FRENCH-CANADIAN NATIONALISM Due to the execution of Louis Riel and the

closing down of catholic schools in New Brunswick and Manitoba, French-Canadians were worried that they Canadian government was not protecting minority rights. French-Canadians Nationalism involves wanting to protect their language, culture and religion. In 1885, over 50 000 people gathered at Champs-de-Mars, in Montreal, to protest the hanging of Louis Riel.

Event: THE INTERPROVINCIAL CONFERENCES Honor Mercier, the Premier of Quebec, organized the first interprovincial conference in 1887 in order to defend provincial autonomy. The provinces demanded that the federal government respect their jurisdictions and that they give the provinces a greater share of the tax revenue (in order to fund social services). Cause:

Honor Mercier promoted provincial autonomy: the idea that the federal government is prohibited from intervening in the provinces jurisdictions. Consquences Many interprovincial conferences were held afterwards. The Canadian federation becomes less centralized: the courts granted certain tax revenues to the provinces and the federal governments right to disallowance was limited. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Why were the French-Canadians in Quebec protesting the hanging of

Louis Riel? 2. What was Merciers objective in organizing the first interprovincial conference? 3. What were the two reasons for the tensions between the federal and provincial governments at the end of the 19th century? 4. What was the consequence of the interprovincial conferences?

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