The New World of Marketing Communication

The New World of Marketing Communication

Chapter 4: How Brand Communication Works Part 2 Principle: Be True to Thy Brand and Thy Consumer Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-1 Questions to Explore 1. How does brand communication work both as a form of mass communication and interactive communication? 2.

How did the idea of advertising effects develop, and what are the problems in traditional approaches to advertising effects? 3. What is the Facets Model of Advertising Effects, and how does it explain how advertising works? Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-2 How does brand communication work? At its most basic, brand communication is a

message to a consumer about a brand. It gets attention and provides information, sometimes even entertainment. It is purposeful in that it seeks to create some kind of response: an inquiry a sale a visit to a website a test drive Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-3

The mass communication foundation Mass communication is a process. Consider: The SMCR Model: 1. Source 2. Sender 3. Message 4. Channels of communication 5. Receiver Feedback is obtained by monitoring the response of the receiver to the message. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-4 The mass communication foundation Referring to Figure 4.1B, discusses:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The source The message The media mix External noise Internal noise The receiver Feedback Can you identify each of these elements in the Chrysler campaign at the beginning of this chapter? Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

4-5 Adding interaction to brand communication Mass communication is traditionally a one-way process with the message moving from sender to receiver. Interactive communication is two-waya dialogueand is where marketing communication is headed. The source and receiver change positions as the

message bounces back and forth between them. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-6 Adding interaction to marketing communication The move toward interactivity Interest in buzz marketing indicates that marketing communication is moving beyond twoway communication. Consumers can now: react to messages with comments, phone calls, email inquiries. Initiate communication as well as receive it.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-7 Adding interaction to marketing communication The move toward interactivity Advertisers must learn to receive (listen) as well as send information. Word of mouth, buzz marketing and online social media are indicators of the need for message integration. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-8 Adding interaction to marketing communication

Interactive communication is the building block of the customer-brand experience. It can determine the likelihood of repeat business and brand loyalty. As a class: check out the Inside Story on Office Depot. Hear Manning and Bodine talk about customer service and the cases in the book at: www.outsidein.forrester.com Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-9

Other aspects of communication Nonverbal communication can be just as powerful as word-based forms. Many commercials rely on the impact of compelling visuals. Brand signals include slogans, but they are dominated by logos, imagery, and color.

Cues and signals are used in commercial communication to help structure a consumers meaning-making process. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-10 Logos use cues to help identify a familiar brand, and these visual elements also signal brand personality. What do you think these logos are saying about their brands? Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-11 What are the effects behind effectiveness? Traditional views on impact AIDA:

Attention Interest Desire Action Think/Feel/Do: Think about the message, feel something about the brand, then do something, such as try it. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-12 What are the effects behind effectiveness? Problems with traditional approaches 1. They presume a predictable set of steps. 2.

Some effects are missingbrand linkage and motivation. Ultimately, brand communication is the most important consideration. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-13 A key principle Not all purchases begin with a search for information. Some purchases are made out of habit or on impulse. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-14

What are the Facets of Impact? Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-19 The Facets Model of Effects Does a more complete job of explaining how advertising creates consumer responses. It is useful in both

setting objectives and evaluating advertising effectiveness. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-16 The Facets Model of Effects Effective advertising creates six types of consumer responses: : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. See/Hear: the Perception Facet

Feel: the Affective or Emotional Facet Think/understand: the Cognitive Facet Connect: the Association Facet Believe: the Persuasion Facet Act/Do: the Behavior Facet Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-17 The Perception Facet: See/Hear Perception: The process by which we receive information through our five senses and assign meaning to it.

Selective perception: Consumers select messages to which they pay attention. For an advertisement to be effective, it first must be noticed or at least register on some minimal level on our senses. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-18 The Perception Facet: See/Hear Factors driving the perception response

Exposure Media planners want consumers to see or hear the message. Selection and attention Selective attention: consumers choose to attend to the message. Interest Receiver mentally engages with the ad or product. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

4-19 The Perception Facet: See/Hear Factors driving the perception response Relevance Message connects on some personal level. Curiosity Results from questioning, wanting to know more.

Awareness Ad makes an impression; registers with consumer. Recognition People remember the ad. Recall means they remember what it said. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-20 The Perception Facet: See/Hear Messages that are relevant speak to a consumers special interests.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-21 The Perception Facet: See/Hear The synergy requirement Using an IMC approach, marketers coordinate all marketing communication messages to create synergy. This means individual messages have more impact working jointly than they would on their own.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-22 The Perception Facet: See/Hear The subliminal issue Subliminal effects are message cues given below the threshold of perception. Subliminal messages are designed to get past your perceptual filters by talking directly to your subconscious. As a class:

For more on this issue, see A Matter of Principle: Ice Cubes, Breasts, and Subliminal Ads. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-23 The Perception Facet: See/Hear The subliminal issue A liquor advertising campaign showed ice cubes with shapes in them and deliberately called attention to these supposedly subliminal messages.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-24 The Emotional or Affective Facet: Feel Affective responses mirror our feelings about something. Affective describes something that stimulates wants, touches the emotions, and elicits feelings.

Brand messages can arouse a range of different emotions. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-25 The Emotional or Affective Facet: Feel Factors that drive the affective response Wants and desires Driven by emotions; based on wishes, longings, cravings.

Excitement Our emotions and passions are aroused. This poster from the Nightlife Navigators campaign works to create a negative feeling about the financial impact of a DUI ticket. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-26 The Emotional or Affective Facet: Feel

Factors that drive the affective response Feelings Emotional appeals based on humor, love, or fear. Liking If you like the ad, those positive feelings transfer to the brand. Resonance A feeling that the message rings true. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-27

The Cognition Facet: Think/Understand Cognition refers to how customers: search for and respond to information learn and understand something. Its a rational, left-brain approach. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-28 As a class: How did American Airlines use the left-brain/

right brain approach in an ad to creatively communicate its new seating in coach? Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-29 The Cognition Facet: Think/Understand Factors that drive the cognitive response Need Ad messages here describe something missing in the consumers life.

Cognitive learning Presenting facts, information, and explanations leads to understanding. Comprehension The process by which we understand, make sense of things, or acquire knowledge. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-30 The Cognition Facet: Think/Understand Factors that drive the cognitive response

Differentiation The consumers ability to separate one brand from another, based on an understanding of a competitive advantage. Recall A measure of learning or understanding. One remembers the ad, the brand and copy points. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-31 The Association Facet: Connect Association means using symbols to

communicate. It is the primary tool used in brand communication. Brand linkage reflects the degree to which: 1. the associations presented in the message 2. the consumer's interest are connected to the brand. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-32 The Association Facet: Connect Factors that drive the association response Symbolism

A brand takes on a symbolic meaning. It stands for certain, usually abstract, qualities. Conditioned learning Thoughts and feelings linked to the brand. Transformation A product takes on meaning and is transformed into something special. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-33 The Association Facet: Connect

This vending machine dispenses free cans of Coca Cola after you literally give it a hug. Part of the Open Happiness campaign in Singapore, it links Coke with the warm feeling of a hug in an effort to encourage public displays of affection, which are rare in that country. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-34 The Persuasion Facet: Believe Persuasion: influencing or motivating the

receiver of a message to believe or do something. Attitude is an inclination to react in a given way. Attitudes are expressed as beliefs when people are convinced. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-35 The Persuasion Facet: Believe Factors that drive persuasion

Motivation Something prompts one to act in a certain way. Influence Opinion leaders may influence others attitudes. Word of mouth is created by strategies that engage influencers. Involvement The degree to which one attends to messages and how they make product decisions. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

4-36 The Persuasion Facet: Believe Factors that drive the persuasion response Engagement The consumer is turned on. Conviction Consumers agree with a message and achieve a state of certainty or belief about a brand.

Preference and intention Here, consumers are motivated by conviction. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-37 The Persuasion Facet: Believe Factors that drive the persuasion response Loyalty Brand loyalty involves attitude, emotion, action. Its built on customer satisfaction. Believability and credibility

Believability: refers to credibility of the message. Credibility: trustworthiness of the source. Source credibility: the person delivering the message is respected, trusted, and believable. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-38 Waking Up Canadian In this YouTube ad, An unsuspecting but newly recognized Canadian citizen wakes up to find his bedroom has become a center of Canadian symbols. How is information processing used here? Check it out at www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDeDQpIQFD0 Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-39 The Behavior Facet: Act/Do

Behavior is the action response. It can involve a number of actions including: Trying or buying the brand Visiting a store Returning an inquiry card Calling a toll-free number Clicking on a Web site A question for you: What is the difference between direct action and indirect action? Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-40 The Behavior Facet: Act/Do

Factors that drive the behavioral response Mental rehearsal Advertising attempts to create virtual memories. Trial This is important for new or expensive products. Buying Advertising sometimes

stimulates sales by the call to action. Designed to inspire action, this ad was used during World War I to convince young people to join the military. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-41 The Behavior Facet: Act/Do Factors that drive the behavioral response Contacting Consumers respond by contacting the advertiser.

Advocating and Referrals Advocacy: speaking out on a brands behalf. Referral: a satisfied customer recommends a favorite brand. Prevention Presenting negative messages about an unwanted behavior and creating incentives to stimulate the desired behavior. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-42 The Power of Brand Communication Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

4-43 Interaction and impact Reviewing the Facets of Effects Model When its six factors work together, they can create a coherent brand perception. However, we must remember that: 1. The effects are interdependent. 2. They are not all equal for all marketing communication situations. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-44 Strong and Weak Effects The Strong Theory

Advertising can persuade people who had never bought a brand to buy it once, and then repeatedly. The Weak Theory Advertising has a limited impact on consumers; best used to reinforce existing brand perceptions. Delayed Effects A consumer may see or hear an advertisement but not act on that message until a later date. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-45 Where Were Headed Next In Chapter 5, we will:

Explore the cultural, social, psychological, and behavioral influences that affect consumer responses to advertising. Discuss how groups of consumers are segmented and targeted. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-46 Its a Wrap Finding Chryslers Heart and Soul This campaign offers a key insight into effective brand communication, as well as a truth about selling automobiles: It

must connect to consumers emotionally. It won the Grand Effie award because it sold the product, the category, and the city. Another judge: the campaign gave the brand its soul back. As a class: Discuss the Facets Model of Effects and describe how is applies to Chryslers Imported from Detroit campaign. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-47

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