The Nutrition Care Process: Diagnosis, Intervention ...

The Nutrition Care Process: Diagnosis, Intervention ...

ADA NUTRITION CARE PROCESS AND MODEL Screening & Referral System Identify risk factors Use appropriate tools and methods Involve interdisciplinary collaboration Nutrition Assessment Obtain/collect timely and appropriate data Analyze/interpret with evidence - based standards

Document Nutrition Diagnosis Identify and label problem Determine cause/contributing risk factors Cluster signs and symptoms/ defining characteristics Document Relationship Between Patient/Client/Group & Dietetics

Professional Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation Monitor progress Measure outcome indicators Evaluate outcomes Document Outcomes Management Sys tem

Monitor the success of the Nutrition Care Process implementation Evaluate the impact with aggregate data Identify and analyze causes of less than optimal performance and outcomes Refine the use of the Nutrition Care Process Nutrition Intervention Plan nutrition intervention Formulate goals and determine a plan of action

Implement the nutrition intervention Care is delivered and actions are carried out Document ADAs Nutrition Care Process Steps Nutrition Assessment Nutrition Diagnosis

Nutrition Intervention Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation Nutrition Assessment (Definition) A systematic process of obtaining, verifying, and interpreting data in order to make decisions about the nature and cause of nutrition-related problems. Lacey and Pritchett, JADA 2003;103:10611072. Nutrition Assessment Components Gather data, considering Dietary intake

Nutrition related consequences of health and disease condition Psycho-social, functional, and behavioral factors Knowledge, readiness, and potential for change Compare to relevant standards Identify possible problem areas Nutrition Assessment: Critical Thinking Observing verbal and non-verbal cues to guide interviewing methods Determining appropriate data to collect Selecting assessment tools and procedures and

applying in valid and reliable ways Distinguishing relevant from irrelevant data Organizing data to relate to nutrition problems Determining when problems require referral ADAs Nutrition Care Process Steps Nutrition Assessment Nutrition Diagnosis

Nutrition Intervention Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation Nutrition Diagnosis Nutritional problem that the dietitian is responsible for treating Names and describes the problem Problem may already exist, or may be at risk of occurring Not a medical diagnosis Type 2 diabetes = medical diagnosis Excessive carbohydrate intake resulting in elevated blood glucose levels = nutrition diagnosis.

Nutrition Dx Domains: Intake Defined as actual problems related to intake of energy, nutrients, fluids, bioactive substances through oral diet or nutrition support (enteral or parenteral nutrition) Class: Calorie energy balance Class: Oral or nutrition support intake Class: Fluid intake balance Class: Bioactive substances balance Class: Nutrient balance Nutrition Dx Domains: Clinical Defined as nutritional findings/problems identified that relate to medical or physical conditions

Class: functional balance (change in physical or mechanical functioning with nutritional consequences) Class: Biochemical balance: change in capacity to metabolize nutrients as a result of medications, surgery, or as indicated by altered lab values Class: weight balance: chronic weight or changed weight status when compared with usual or desired body weight Nutrition Dx Domains: Behavioral-Environmental Defined as nutritional findings/problems

identified that relate to knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, physical encironment, or access to food and food safety Class: knowledge and beliefs Class: physical activity, balance and function Class: food safety and access Nutrition Diagnosis Components Problem (Diagnostic Label) Etiology (Cause/contributing risk factors) Signs/Symptoms (Defining characteristics) Signs = objective data = observable,

measurable changes Symptoms = subjective data = changes pt feels and expresses Nutrition Diagnosis Components Problem (Diagnostic Label) Describes alterations in pts nutritional status Diagnostic labels

Impaired (nutrient utilization) Altered (GI function) Inadequate/excessive (calorie intake) Inappropriate (intake of types of carbohydrate) Swallowing difficulty Nutrition Diagnosis Components Etiology (Cause/Contributing Factors) Related factors that contribute to problem Identifies cause of the problem Helps determine whether nutrition intervention will improve problem Linked to problem by words related to

(RT) Note: etiology may not always be clear Nutrition Diagnosis Components Etiology (Cause/Contributing Factors) Excessive calorie intake (problem) related to regular consumption of large portions of high-fat meals (etiology) Swallowing difficulty (problem) related to stroke (etiology) Nutrition Diagnosis Components Signs/Symptoms (Defining

characteristics) Evidence that problem exists Linked to etiology by words as evidenced by Nutrition Diagnosis Components Etiology (Cause/Contributing Factors) Excessive calorie intake (problem) related to regular consumption of large portions of high-fat meals (etiology) as evidenced by diet history and weight status Swallowing difficulty (problem) related to stroke (etiology) as evidenced by coughing following drinking of thin liquids (signs and

symptoms) Nutrition Diagnosis Excessive calorie intake (P) related to regular consumption of large portions of high-fat meals (E) as evidenced by diet history & 12 lb wt gain over last 18 mo (S & S) Nutrition Diagnosis Components Food, nutrition and nutrition-related knowledge deficit (P) R/T lack of education on infant feeding practices (E) as evidenced by infant

receiving bedtime juice in a bottle (S) Altered GI function (P) R/T ileal resection (E) as evidenced by medical history and dumping syndrome symptoms after meals (S) Nutrition Diagnosis Components Nutrition Diagnosis Statement should be: clear, concise

specific related to one problem accurate related to one etiology based on reliable, accurate assessment data Nutritional vs Medical Dx Medical Diagnosis Nutritional Diagnosis Diabetes Excessive CHO intake r/t visits to Coldstone Creamery

as evidenced by diet hx and high hs blood glucose Trauma and closed head injury Increased energy needs r/t multiple trauma as evidenced by results of indirect calorimetry Liver failure Altered gastrointestinal function r/t cirrhosis of the liver as evidenced by steatorrhea and growth failure Nutritional vs Medical Dx

Medical Dx Nutritional Diagnosis Obesity Excessive energy intake r/t lack of access to healthy food choices (restaurant eating) as evidenced by diet history and BMI of 35. Dependence mechanical ventilation Excessive energy intake r/t high volume PN as evidenced

by RQ >1 Anorexia nervosa Undesirable food choices r/t history of anorexia nervosa and self-limiting behavior as evidenced by diet history and weight loss of 5 lb ADAs Nutrition Care Process Steps

Nutrition Assessment Nutrition Diagnosis Nutrition Intervention Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation Nutrition Intervention Definition Purposely-planned actions designed with the intent of changing a nutrition-related behavior, risk factor, environmental condition, or aspect of health status for an individual, a target group, or population at large. Lacey and Pritchett, JADA 2003;103:10611072

Directed at the etiology or effects of a diagnosis Intervention Objectives Should be patient-centered Must be achievable Stated in behavioral terms, quantifiable terms Pt and counselor must establish goals together may involve other members of health care team

What will the patient do or achieve if objectives met Intervention Objectives Problem 1: Involuntary weight loss Objectives: 1. Pt will stop losing wt and begin to gain wt slowly, to a target wt of 145# 2. Pt will modify his diet to increase intake to meet calorie and protein needs Intervention Objectives Problem 2: Inadequate protein-energy intake 2 poor appetite

Objectives: 1. Pt will attend senior center for lunch daily to improve socialization and calorie intake 2. Pt will include nutrient-dense foods in his diet Nutrition Intervention Intervention translates assessment data into strategies, activities, or interventions that will enable the patient or client to meet the established objectives. Interventions should be specific:

What? When? Where? How? Nutrition Intervention Problem 1: Involuntary Weight loss Intervention: Pt will try to eat three meals a day plus bedtime snack Pt will include at least one nutrient-dense supplement per day in his diet Pt will increase energy intake to 1800 kcal per day, complete 3-day food record for analysis of adequacy

Nutrition Intervention Problem 2: Inadequate protein-calorie intake 2 poor appetite Intervention: Pt will include nutrient-dense foods with meals, especially when appetite is minimal Patient will begin meal with nutrient-dense foods, follow with others Pt will attend senior center for lunch daily to improve socialization/appetite ADAs Nutrition Care Process Steps

Nutrition Assessment Nutrition Diagnosis Nutrition Intervention Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation Nutrition Monitoring & Evaluation Components Evaluate outcomes

Compare current findings with previous status, intervention goals, and/or reference standards What gets Measured? Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation Types of Outcomes Direct nutrition outcomes Clinical and health status outcomes Patient/client-centered outcomes

Healthcare utilization Intermediate-result outcome End-result outcome Nutrition Goals and Objectives Are necessary in order to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition care Should be achievable and based on scientific evidence Should be directly or indirectly related to nutrition care

NCP Example: Acute Care Nutrition Assessment Medical hx: 72 y.o. female admitted with decompensated CHF; heart failure team consulted; has been admitted with same dx x 2 in past month; meds: Lasix and Toprol; current diet order: 2 gram sodium; has lost 5 pounds in 24 hours since admission; Output > input by 2 liters Nutrition history: has been told to weigh self daily but has no scale at home. Does not add salt to foods at the table. Noticed swollen face and extremities on day prior to admission. Day before admission ate canned soup for lunch and 3 slices of pizza for dinner; does not restrict fluids; has never received nutrition counseling

NCP Example: Acute Care Nutrition Diagnosis Excessive sodium intake r/t frequent use of canned soups and restaurant foods as evidenced by diet history Knowledge deficit r/t no previous nutrition education as evidenced by frequent use of high sodium convenience foods and inability to name high sodium foods Excess fluid intake r/t dietary indiscretions as evidenced by diet hx and current fluid status Self-monitoring deficit r/t lack of access to scale as evidenced by patient self report

NCP Example: Acute Care Nutrition Intervention Excessive sodium intake: Patient will attend Senior Feeding site that provides low sodium meals; Patient will implement survival skills low sodium diet principles and attend heart failure diet program in heart failure clinic Self-monitoring deficit: Patient will obtain free home scale from CHF case manager; will limit fluids to 2 liters/day per instructions in Heart Failure Clinic if adherence to low sodium diet does not achieve appropriate fluid balance NCP Example: Acute Care

Monitoring and Evaluation Patient will weigh self daily and keep log; report to heart failure case manager if weight 2 lb in 24 hours Patient will bring 3 day diet record to heart failure clinic for review by dietitian Heart failure case manager will track hospital readmissions over 12 months

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