The Ottawa Charter as an Effective Health ... - 11 PDHPE
The Ottawa Charter as an Effective Health Promotion Framework Building Health Public Policy STUDENTS LEARN ABOUT: Developing Personal Skills Creating Supportive Environments Strengthening Community Action Reorienting Health Services STUDENTS LEARN TO: Describe the historical significance of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion Explain how health promotion based on the action areas of the Ottawa Charter has contributed to positive health outcomes. Eg: reduction in road The Ottawa Charter as an Effective Health Promotion Framework - Overview As you learn about the Ottawa Charter as an effective health promotion framework it is important to understand the philosophy behind it as well as its historical significance.
The Ottawa Charter for health promotion is the most widely used health promotion framework and was developed after the World Health Organisation held an international conference on health promotion in 1986. It is the first of its type to consider all the determinants of health and not just see health as the absence of disease. You to learn about the five action areas of the framework: Developing Personal Skills Creating Supportive Environments Strengthening Community Action Reorienting Health Services Building Healthy Public Policy. You need to explain how this framework has contributed to successful health promotion initiatives in Australia and NSW, with the examples of reducing road injuries and tobacco use suggested. This will come up again in the HSC The Historical Significance of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion The historical significance of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion begins with the original conference. This conference was held by the World Health Organisation in Ottawa, Canada on 21st November 1986. It was the First International Conference on Health Promotion. The conference was held in response to the expectation around the world for a new public health movement. The Ottawa Charter provided a positive definition for health (something to pursue, rather than
something to be avoided) Encouraged the collaborative approach to health promotion that aims to promote health through changing the social determinants of health. The Ottawa Charter outlined three (3) strategies for health promotion: Advocacy Mediating Enabling. These strategies are then applied in the five (5) action areas The Historical Significance of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion Cont One of the key landmarks for the Ottawa Charter is that it made preventative health promotion a priority. Also sought to promote health by empowering the individual, communities, governments and organisations to prevent poor health (easier for people to stop risk behaviours and participate in more protective behaviours). It also sought to shape the context around people to make health more likely to be achieved, and sought after. The historical significance of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion is about the reorientation of health promotion away from avoiding disease and towards prevention through a multi-sectoral approach using the 3 strategies: advocacy, mediating and enabling And 5 action areas: Building healthy public policy
Creating supportive environments Strengthening community action Developing personal skills Reorienting health services Developing Personal Skills What does this mean? Supporting the personal and social development of the individual What is the aim? To educate, provide health information and to improve decision making, communication and life skills What does it involve? Modifying personal behaviours to enable people to learn throughout life To prepare them for all of its stages To cope with chronic illness and injuries Developing time management skills and assertiveness to deal with stress Accessing information and support to quit smoking Who is responsible? Facilitated in school, home, work and community settings Action required through educational, professional, commercial and voluntary bodies Creating Supportive Environments
What does this mean? Making the places people live, work and play (eg workplaces, families, support groups, schools) the source of good health What is the aim? To take care of each other, our communities and our environment Conserve our natural and built environments Organise our work and social environments in a way that makes them safe, satisfying, stimulating and enjoyable This enhances healthy decisions and behaviours due to support What does it involve? Support networks and community services Eg emotional or financial support for a family Eg community support group AA Includes environmental influences on health Eg programs that respond to the impact of changing technology, work, energy production and urbanisation and act to ensure positive health benefits for the public Who is responsible? Global responsibility that needs to be undertaken by governments, communities, employers, unions and families Strengthening Community Action What does this mean? Giving communities the power to identify their own health priorities and then take action, in partnership with other agencies, to
address them What is the aim? For communities to establish ownership of the health problems specific to their population Then work with others to solve them What does it involve? Empowering communities to take action Eg giving communities an opportunity to lobby Lines of communication to express concerns Representation at all levels of government Learning opportunities for health Information required to access funding Who is responsible? Community and local agencies including: Schools State and local government Interest groups Clubs Planning bodies Re-orienting Health Services What does this mean? Moving away from the clinical and curative services approach to a more preventative approach
Stronger attention to research and professional training What is the aim? Establish in health professionals a more holistic attitude What does it involve? Identifying the range of services available (hospitals, community health centres, nursing homes etc) Gaining access to health services (Medicare, establishment of health services in geographically accessible locations) Moving from cure to prevention Who is responsible? Shared among individuals, community groups, health professionals, health service institutions and governments Building Health Public Policy What does this mean? Ensuring that decisions made at all levels of government and organisations are made so that they work towards health improvements What is the aim? To put health on the agenda of policy makers in all sectors at all levels. Ensure legislation, policies, taxations, fiscal and organisational change are all undertaken with their impact on the health of the population in mind
What does it involve? Identifying the influence of policies on health (Eg compulsory health policies, legislation, monitoring by police and media campaigns have combined to impact on health) Identifying and removing obstacles to the adoption of healthy policy (Eg demonstrating long term advantages of energy efficient house design to governments who are drafting planning laws Influencing policy (Eg lobbying by community bodies NRMA advocating for better engineering of roads/ cars to improve motor vehicle safety Who is responsible? Governments, public servants, commercial enterprises, lobby groups, unions, non-government organisations and peak bodies take joint action to improve health outcomes ROAD SAFETY AND THE OTTAWA CHARTER ACTION AREAS EXAMPLES OF SUCCESSFUL PREVENTIVE STRATEGIES Developing Personal Skills New P Plate laws with longer qualification period and logged driving hours Road safety campaigns including Notes and Speeding. No one thinks big of you
Creating Supportive Environments Strengthening Community Action Lollipop people on crossings employing local parents and citizens Stop, Revive, Survive campaign employing local service groups Reorienting Health Services Visits by emergency workers to schools for driver education courses First aid and emergency care training Building Healthy Public Policy Random breath testing
Licensing points system 40 kph school zones around schools Improved local traffic speed regulators Rules limiting number of passengers for P Plate drivers Better engineering standards for roads and cars TOBACCO USE AND THE OTTAWA CHARTER ACTION AREAS EXAMPLES OF SUCCESSFUL PREVENTATIVE STRATEGIES Developing Personal Skills Anti-smoking programs run through PDHPE programs at ALL schools QUIT Programs run through hospitals and medical practitioners Anti-smoking media campaigns eg Every cigarette is doing you damage Creating Supportive Environments QUIT Line, online counselling and advice service Smoke free zones including public buildings, spaces and public transport Laws restricting access to tobacco products by young people
Strengthening Community Action Adherence to point of sale regulations to restrict access to cigarettes by minors School-based cessation programs World No Tobacco Day activities in local communities and schools Reorienting Health Services GP interventions and promotion of QUIT Programs to patients Research into tobacco and its effects on users Building Healthy Public Policy Multiple regulations about advertising, point of sale, packaging High taxation on tobacco products
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