The Periodic Table

The Periodic Table UNIT 4A Ion = + or charged atom Charge +1 Valance Electrons 1 +2 +3 2 3 Various positive charges 2 Skip -3

-2 -1 5 6 7 4 0 8 Ions Cations: Anions:

Positively Charged Negatively Charged Formed by the lost of electrons Formed by gaining electrons Metals form cations Nonmetals form anions

Silver always +1 Noble gases never have a charge Zinc and Cadmium always +2 Why do atoms form ions? Valance electrons are electrons in the outermost shell The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that states that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electronic

configuration as a noble gas. Exception: Hydrogen and Helium only need a duet (2 valance electrons) Valance electrons are gained, lost, or shared in order to achieve an octet Polyatomic Ions Monatomic ions- an atom with an overall charge consisting of one element Polyatomic ion- A group of elements with an overall charge. Polyatomic ions act as one single unit.

Common polyatomic ions are listed on the back of your periodic table Examples Diatomic Molecules Diatomic Molecules- 2 atoms of the same element chemically bonded together 7 Diatomic Molecules Br I N Cl H O F They form a 7 on the Periodic Table How to count Atoms If there is no numbers by the symbol of the element, assume only one

Na MgO A subscript is a number written at the lower right corner of the chemical symbol. If there is more than one, then a number is used. H2 Li2O How to count Atoms A subscript outside a multiples all the elements inside the parenthesis.

Mg3(PO4)2 A coefficient is a number written in front of a chemical symbol or in front of a chemical formula which indicates the number of atoms or molecules of the substance. 3C 2 H2O Lets Practice counting Atoms 1) NaCO3

1) NH4C2H3O2 1) 1 Na, 1 C, 3 O 1) 1 N, 7 H, 2 C, 2O 2) Ca3(PO4)2 2) 4 Al2(CO3)3 2)

3 Ca, 2 P, 8 O 2) 8 Al, 12 C, 36 O 3) K2CrO4 3) Pb(NO3)2 3) 2 K, 1 Cr, 4 O 3) 2 Pb, 2 N, 6 O

4) 3 BaCl2 4) 2 (NH4)2Cr2O7 4) 3 Ba, 6 Cl 4) 4 N, 16 H, 4 Cr, 14 O Periodic Trends

Atomic Radius Ionic Radius Ionization Energy Electronegativity Metallic Characteristic Atomic Radius Atomic Radius is defined the

distance between nuclei of atoms bonded together The radius decreases going across a row and increases going down a column. Atomic Radius Periodic Trends Atomic Radius Periodic Trends 9:30 trend Atomic radius increase as we move from right to left (arrows point in the increasing direction)

Atomic radius increases as we move from top to bottom Where is the element with the largest atomic radius located? What element is it? Bottom left corner Francium (Fr) Why Atomic Radius Trends? Why are atoms larger going down a

group? Why do atoms get smaller going to from left to right across the row? Atoms are larger because the higher the energy level, the more orbitals the atom has, which means the larger the electron orbitals are. There is an increases in nuclear charge (more protons) Practice- Atomic Radius Which of the following has the largest atomic radius? 1.

Cobalt or Nickel 2. Phosphorous or Nitrogen 3. Potassium or Oxygen List the following in order of increasing atomic radius. 4. Fluorine, gallium, and carbon 5. Barium, iodine, and gold F, C, Ga I, Au, Ba

List the following in order of decreasing atomic radius. 6. Aluminum, Sulfur, and sodium Na, Al, S Ionic Radius Radius A of the atom once it becomes an ion cation has a smaller radius than its atom An anion has a larger radius than its atom Practice

1. Which of the following has a larger radius? Calcium atom or calcium ion? 1. 2. Manganese atom or manganese ion? 1. 3. Manganese atom Selenium atom or selenium ion? 1. 4. Calcium Atom

Selenium ion Chlorine atom or chlorine ion? 1. Chlorine ion Ionization Energy Ionization Energy is the energy required to completely remove an electron from a atom or an ion. 3 oclock trend Increases from bottom to top

Increases from left to right *Ignore Noble Gases (they do not become ions) Practice- Ionization Energy Which of the following has the largest ionization energy? 1. Cobalt or Nickel 2. Phosphorous or Nitrogen 3. Potassium or Oxygen

List the following in order of increasing ionization energy. 4. Fluorine, gallium, and carbon 5. Barium, iodine, and gold Ga, C, F Ba, Au, I List the following in order of decreasing ionization energy. 6. Aluminum, Sulfur, and sodium S, Al, Na Electronegativity

Electronegativity is a measure of attraction of an atom for the electrons in a chemical bond. 3 oclock trend Increases from bottom to top Increases from left to right *Ignore Noble Gases (they do not attract ions)

Practice- Electronegativity Which of the following has the largest electronegativity? 1. Cobalt or Nickel 2. Phosphorous or Nitrogen 3. Potassium or Oxygen List the following in order of increasing electronegativity. 4. Fluorine, gallium, and carbon 5. Barium, iodine, and gold

Ga, C, F Ba, Au, I List the following in order of decreasing electronegativity. 6. Aluminum, Sulfur, and sodium S, Al, Na Periodic Trends Ionization Energy and Electronegativity have the same periodic trend (3 oclock). The electrons of smaller atoms are closer to the nucleus = stronger attraction = harder to pull electrons away from atom.

Larger atoms = valence electrons are further away = electrons are easier to steal Metal Reactivity and Metallic Characteristic 9:30 trend Metal reactivity and Metallic characteristic increase as we move from right to left Metal reactivity increases as we move from top to bottom

Where is the most reactive metal located? What element is it? (arrows point in the increasing direction) Bottom left Francium (Fr) Metal Reactivity Activity Series for Metals: shows common and ranks the metals from most reactive and least reactive Practice- Metallic Characteristic Which of the following has the most metallic characteristics? 1.

Cobalt or Nickel 2. Phosphorous or Nitrogen 3. Potassium or Oxygen List the following in order of increasing metallic characteristics. 4. Fluorine, gallium, and carbon 5. Barium, iodine, and gold F, C, Ga I, Au, Ba

List the following in order of decreasing metallic characteristics. 6. Aluminum, Sulfur, and sodium Na, Al, S Periodic Trends Summarized rgy e and n E c on isti r ti a e

z t ac o ni I r a d an Ch y y c t i i l tiv al ctivit t a g e

one , M l Rea r s t c u Ele adi Meta R ic m o At Atomic Radius, Metallic Characteristic and Metal Reactivity Atomic Radius, Metallic Characteristic and Metal Reactivity Electronegativity and Ionization Energy

Electronegativity and Ionization Energy Periodic and Group trends PERIOD Atomic radius Ionization Energy Electronegativity Metallic Characteristic and Metal Reactivity GROUP

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