The Periodic Table

The Periodic Table

Section 2 REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS What well learn? Recognize the properties of representative elements. Identify uses for the representative elements.

Classify elements into groups based on similar properties. Why its important? Many representative elements play key roles in your body, your environment, and in the things you use everyday Vocabulary:

Alkali metal Alkaline earth metal Semiconductor

Halogen Noble gas Groups 1 & 2 Always found in combined w/ other elements. Active metals All metals except Hydrogen Hydrogen

Hydrogen belongs to a family of its own. Hydrogen is a diatomic, reactive gas. Hydrogen was involved in the explosion of the Hindenberg. Hydrogen is promising as an alternative fuel source for automobiles

Alkali Metals Silvery solids Low densities Low melting points Example: Lithium (Li)- batteries in cameras (sodium chloride)-table salt Sodium (Na)- potatoes

Potassium (K)- bananas Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2 elements -denser, harder - Low melting point - Reactive Example: Beryllium (Be) gems, emerald

Magnesium (Mg)- chlorophyll in plants Groups 13 through 18 Metals, non metals, metalloids Solid, liquid and gas Group 13 (Boron Family) Metals except Boron (B)

brittle, black metalloid used in cookware Aluminum (Al) soft drink cans baseball bat, cookware Gallium (Ga) solid metal, low melting point computer chips Group 14 (Carbon Family)

Carbon (C) non metal - exist as diamond & graphite - found in living things Silicon (Si) metalloid, found in sand (glass) computer chips Germanium (Ge) metalloid used in electronics as semi conductor

Tin (Sn) Lead (Pb) toothpaste coating on steel cans for food apron (dental x-rays) car batteries

x-ray equipment Group 15 (Nitrogen Family) Nitrogen (N) air you breath - non metal Ammonia gas cleanser, disinfectant, solid fertilizers, nylon for parachutes. Phosphorus (P)a. Red (less active)- matches b. White (more active) cant be exposed

to O2 - Found in healthy teeth & bones -Fertilizers Group 16 (Oxygen Family) Oxygen (O) earths atmosphere - earths rocks & minerals - ozone - foam (fire fighters)

Sulfur (S) solid, yellow non metal - sulfuric acid ( chemical) used as paints, fertilizers, detergents, synthetic fibers, rubber. Group 17 (Halogens) - All non metals except astatine (metalloid) - Salt formers (halogens) w/ alkali metals Chlorine (Cl)- w/ sodium (table salt)

- kill bacteria (pool) Flourine ( Fl)- most reactive Iodine (I)- least reactive - needed by many systems in our body. Group 18 (The Noble Gases) * Rarely combine with Other elements.

Helium (He)- yellow, less dense - balloons Neon (Ne) advertising signs - red orange Argon (Ar) bluish violet - most abundant Krypton (Kr)- combined with neon lights used in light bulbs.

- landing strips at airport runways Xenon (Xe)- strobe lights - photographic flash tubes. Radon (Rn) radioactive gas - can cause lung cancer

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