17.2 | The Protestant Reformation Revelations and the Breaking of the Church A Much Needed Reform Renaissance Popes Greedy warlords Ambitious
Lack of spiritual guidance How do you obtain this? So what is salvation? Indulgences You could donate to the church and receive an
indulgence Relics Could cut your time in purgatory by 1,000 years Buy indulgences? Is this Christian? Catholic monk who thinks no
Martin Luther Martin Luther Monk and professor Wittenberg (Germany) Study of the bible Questioned the certainty of salvation
Questioned the infallibility of Popes Justification in faith alone Not a rebel, nor a fanatic But disgusted by indulgences As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs Felt that people were hurting
their chances at salvation by buying indulgences 1517 A.D. | You can just write 95 The NinetyFive Theses 1517 the word spreads The printing press
Johannes Gutenberg Copying Greek and Roman works Islams contribution to preservation The Popes response The Diet of Worms 1521 HRE Charles V headed the meeting Luther refuses to change his views
Charles brands him an outlaw Luther was some drunken German who will amend his ways when he sobers up Luther Gains Support 1521 he is excommunicated Begins printing his work in German He calls on the German princes to break with
Catholic Church The Prince of Wittenberg protects him Other principalities follow suit Luther takes refuge in various cities The German Peasants War c.1525 Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Empire Decentralization Austria The Hapsburgs Defender of the Faith Must end this heresy
The Reformation Other German states would reform their churches Protestantism Charles V The Habsburg Dynasty Fights the states that support Luther Issues
Switzerland Embraces the Change Ulrich Zwingli (f. 1525) Fought transubstantiation Anabaptists (rebaptism) Radical, primitive Christianity
John Calvin Christian Humanist Predestination Saints and sinners Live like saints, or be a sinner Geneva asks Calvin to lead them Theocracy established 1555
Catholic/Calvinist wars The English Reformation Reform movements splinter Europe English Reformation Henry VIII 1491-1547 Mary Tudor
Anne Boleyn Elizabeth Tudor Act of Supremacy 1534 the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England Thomas More executed for his beliefs
Catholic churches destroyed Henry VIII Tudor Dies Edward VI Tudor becomes king but dies shortly after Bloody Mary Tudor Burning of Protestants 1558 dies
Elizabeth Tudor becomes Queen 25 yrs old Protestant, but tolerant Would usher in the Elizabethan Era German Principalities vs. HRE Charles V |
Result 1555 Peace of Augsburg A century of religious war The Catholic Reformation
Catholic Reformation Ignatius of Loyola The Jesuits Soldiers of God Absolute obedience to the Pope The Council of Trent 1545 Reaffirmed Catholic belief Organized Catholic nations
Targeted enemies Religious Persecution Catholics and Protestants persecuted radicals and outcasts Pressure to conform Jews were expelled or quartered Ghettos
Complete change of the food web: Elk. populations. increased … Overgrazing (by elk) Grasses became wiped out. Populations of animals dependant on grasses were wiped out (hares, prairie dogs, skunks, chipmunks, and other small mammals)
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