Settling the Northern Colonies Chapter 3 Calvinism Calvinism inspired by Puritan Reformation Foundation for Puritanism, Scottish Presbyterians, French Huguenots and Dutch Reformed All groups were significant players in colonization of America Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) People are wicked and weak Predestination Good works does not earn grace for the damned Grace of elect could be lost Spiritual authority goes to ministers chosen
by people, not bishops People constantly looked for evidence that they were saved John Calvin Puritans Henry VIII separated from Catholic Church but kept many Catholic ways Wanted to purify Church of England Get rid of Catholic traditions Emphasize literacy and Bible study Appealed to poor Separatists Puritans who wanted to split from Church of England Only wanted the visible saints allowed into the church King James I
Tried to force all English to follow his religion Afraid challenge in religion would lead to challenge politics Separatists fled to Holland Mayflower Left Sept 16 1620, 102 passengers Separatists did not want to be influenced by Dutch culture arrived December 21st Landed at Cape Cod wrong location so did not have legal right to make a government Was outside of the charter given to the Virginia Company
Pilgrims would use Bible as their laws Mayflower Compact Made a government for settlers William Bradford governor Feared non-Separatists would corrupt the colony Captain Miles Standish head the militia Pledged loyalty to King and follow laws Agreed to follow the will of majority Precedent of selfgovernment in American colonies Squanto
Wampanoag Indian Most of his people had been killed Had been kidnapped by English sea captain then escaped Learned English When Pilgrims arrived, they found Squanto Squantos help Facilitated peace treaty between Massasoit and the Pilgrims Worked as interpreter Showed how to plant corn, fertilize soil, trap beaver Showed where to fish First Thanksgiving celebrated first successful harvest in 1621 Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 Charles I allowed Archbishop William Laud to persecute Puritans Led to non-Separatist Puritans wanting to leave England Charter was vague Allowed Puritans to create headquarters in Massachusetts Allowed Puritans to make their own laws and officers effect: settlers govern themselves Great Migration 1630-1642 70,000 Puritans left England 20,000 to New England Seal of Massachusetts Bay Colony Massachusetts Bay Colony
John Winthrop was first governor Settlers Were wealthy, educated Communities were built around a church (congregation) John Winthrop No Religious toleration Must be a Puritan City Upon a Hill Colony would be an example for the rest of the world Believed that God would insure the success of colony Gave Puritans strength to survive bad times and dangers
Massachusetts Bay Colony Congregational Church Puritan church in America Needed membership to vote Town government open to all property owners Increased public participation in government Was NOT democracy Feared common people interfering with establishment of society built on Puritan ideals
Massachusetts Bay Colony Clergy determined membership in church and held people accountable for actions Clergy were selected by people Had to remain popular to keep position Protestant Work Ethic Develops to avoid sloth Blue Laws Government passes laws to enforce moral codes Roger Williams Dissenter
Argued for complete split from Church of England Said state could not legislate religious behavior Massachusetts government was based on religion Massachusetts Bay charter illegal because settlers took land from Indians Expelled from Massachusetts in 1635 Narragansett Indian Sachems, Canonicus and Miantonom, deeded the land for Roger Williams' colony Rhode Island Roger Williams went to Rhode Island, bought land from Indians and
established a colony Attracted independent thinkers Opposed to special privilege Religious Toleration Quakers, Jews, non-Puritans could practice religion freely Outcasts came to Rhode Island, but groups didnt have much in common 1644 Rhode Island gets charter from Parliament Independent Man Rhode Island State Capitol Anne Hutchinson Challenged Puritan teachings Antinomianism Since life is predestined,
people are under no obligation to follow edicts of either church or government Was convicted of heresy and banished from Massachusetts in 1638 moved to Rhode Island Eventually went to New York and was killed by Indians Anne Hutchinson at trial Connecticut Hartford founded in 1635 1636 Reverend Thomas Hooker brings
Boston Puritans to get more farmland for settlers New Haven founded 1638 Wanted an even more strict church-state connection than Massachusetts Fundamental Orders of Connecticut 1639 Created by Hartford settlement precedent of Constitution in America set up self government, legislative assembly, court voting limited to property owners 1662 King Charles II gives Hartford charter over all of Connecticut, forcing New Haven under Hartford control Puritans versus Indians Epidemic in 1621 killed most Indians around
Plymouth Pequot War 1637 English and Narragansett fought against Pequot English annihilate Pequots Metacom (King Philip) 1675 created Indian alliance to resist spread of English Attacked 52 Puritan towns War ended, Metacom defeated Indian survivors forced to move onto reservations
Ended Indian threat to New England New England Confederation Created in 1643 by Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven and Puritan settlements To provide safety and government during English Civil Wars First step towards unity Picked delegates, colonies worked together for shared purpose Charles II restored in 1660 Wanted to reassert royal control Gave charters to Connecticut
(1662) and Rhode Island (1663) Massachusetts Bay influence 1684 revoked Massachusetts Bay charter Dominion of New England 1686 King James II combined NY, NJ and NE colonies into one Royal colony Angered colonists because London imposed Dominion on them opposed to the Confederation Was supposed to facilitate defense Allowed enforcement of Navigation Laws
Belgian map 1685 New England Dominion of New England Appointed Sir Edmund Andros as governor Disliked because he was Anglican Ban all colonial assemblies, limited town meetings, courts, press and schools Andros lost support when tried to stop smuggling Dominion of New England ended with Glorious Revolution in 1688 1691 new royal charter issued that allowed voting to all male property holders, not just Puritans
Glorious Revolution 1688 William and Mary are asked by Parliament to replace James II shows King gets power from Parliament, not God Americans follow British example and challenge royal authority British officials appointed during James II reign remained in power in America. Prevented political and economic opportunity for colonists Lays foundation of resentment in colonies Anglo Dutch conflict Netherlands became major commercial power following independence from Spain 1609 Hudson sails for Dutch in Hudson Valley and Canada 1626 purchase Manhattan
1628 Dutch take Caribbean Islands from Spain and Brazil and Indian Ocean ports from Portugal Dutch East and West India Companies led most trade and had own armies Becomes banking capital of Europe British and Dutch commercial objectives conflict Naval Wars (1652-4), (1665-7), (1672-4) Dutch colony on the Hudson New Netherland
Established 1623 Peter Stuyvesant was Dutch governor From Albany to NYC Had easy access to ocean and interior via Hudson River Patroons established large feudal New Amsterdam to New York City type estates New Amsterdam (New York City) Bought Manhattan for $24 Was run solely for Dutch West India Companys interests Very autocratic
Dutch would trade with anyone Wanted to make money, not City on a Hill Dutch struggles with English and Swedish colonies New Netherlands was poorly run because emphasis was on profit, not development of colony English colonies in New England felt threatened by Dutch Resisted attempts by Dutch to move into new territories Some wanted military invasion of New Amsterdam Swedish make colonies in Dutch territory along Delaware River in 1638
Created as an attempt to establish Swedish influence following Thirty Years war Taken over by Dutch in 1655 Peter Stuyvesant led military expedition England takes over New Netherland New Netherlands were vulnerable because surrounded by British colonies King Charles of England gave land including New Netherland to Duke of York in 1664 Duke of York sent fleet to make Dutch surrender Dutch surrender without a fight Stuyvesant did not have ammunition to fight Growth was limited due to aristocratic tendencies and corrupt governors that allowed for power to be concentrated in hands of a few families Dutch surrender of New Amsterdam
Pennsylvania Quakers Society of Friends Wouldnt pay taxes to Anglican Church Treated everyone as equals Rejected authority of priests, ministers Followed inner light Believed in equality, pacifism Spoke out against slavery Quaker Meeting William Penn King Charles II grants land to Penn as repayment for loan in 1681 Pennsylvania created for haven for persecuted people and to experiment with a more liberal government
Advertised broadly for settlers Encouraged artisans to settle Paid Indians for the land for Philadelphia Resulted in positive relations Pennsylvania Tolerance led to many non-Quakers moving to Pennsylvania Freedom of worship, no militia, no limits on immigration Grew very rapidly Scots, Irish, Scotch-Irish Second largest white ethnic group Settled in back-country areas Germans Tried to keep own language and cultures Settled mainly Pennsylvania developed Conestoga wagons, iron stove Quakers lose control
Attacks by Indians and Quakers refusal to fight led to non-Quakers getting control of government Middle Colonies New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania Soil was fertile and broad, allowed for growth of grain Bread Basket Colonies Rivers and deep harbors encouraged trade Delaware, Hudson, Susquehanna
Forests led to timber, furniture and shipbuilding Economy balanced between trade and farming Ethnically mixed Largest amounts of religious tolerance and democracy Good land was available
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