THE RED SCARE Turn-in: Cold War WKST Warm-up: Vocabulary 8 15 Notes: Pg. 3 4 Assignment: Crossword ATLANTIC PACT 1. What is No Admittance wall representing? A. The U.S. containment policy B. The Iron Curtain dividing Eastern and Western Europe C. Stalins refusal to allow anyone to join the
Soviet Union D. The Berlin Blockade COLD WAR BEGINNING QUESTIONS 1. What caused tension within the United Nations when it was initially formed? A. The nations of East Asia often voted for unpopular measures B. The Soviet Union blocked any issue it didnt agree with C. The United Kingdom was the only permanent member D. The United States had more votes than anyone else 2. What led many Chinese people to prefer Mao Zedongs government over Chain Kai-Sheks government? A. Mao Zedong made sure everyone worked at a job.
B. Mao Zedong provided free medical care for the people. C. Mao Zedong supported free elections D. Mao Zedong treated the people better. MAIN IDEA: During the late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of communism led to reckless charges against innocent citizens in the U.S. and the two superpowers were on a brink of a nuclear war. Objective: Why were Americans worried about the security of the United States? What was the policy of brinkmanship?
FEAR OF COMMUNISM INFLUENCE: Americans feared communist ideology, a world revolution, and Soviet expansion. In March of 1947, President Truman set up the Loyalty Review Board, which was created to investigate federal employees and dismiss those disloyal to the U.S. government. The HUAC (House of Un-American Activities Committee) was a government body created to investigate communist influence outside the government as well. They focused on the movie industry. They believed that Communists were
sneaking propaganda into films. SUPERSTAR COMMIES The HUAC subpoenaed 43 witnesses from Hollywood to discuss any possible involvement. Most agreed and humored HUAC, but ten witnesses refused because they believed the proceedings were unconstitutional violating their rights of freedom of speech and assembly. These men came to be known as the Hollywood Ten, and were sent to prison. Subsequently, Hollywood executives instituted a blacklist list of people whom they condemned for having a Communist background. SPY CASES STUN THE NATION As fear grew, so did the accusations. All
Communists organizations were required to register with the federal governments, immigrants suspected of promoting totalitarianism were denied entrance, citizens were on risk of being deported. In 1948, a former spy named Whittaker Chambers accused Alger Hiss of being a spy for the Soviets and a young, Republican congressman named Richard Nixon gained fame by tirelessly prosecuting Hiss. Hiss was found guilty for perjury. Less than four years later, Nixon was VP.
THE ROSENBERGS Another high-profile trail was the Rosenberg spy case. The Rosenbergs were accused of providing info to the Soviets which enabled them to produce an atomic bomb in 1949. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were found guilty of espionage and executed. WITCH HUNT The most famous anti-Communist activist was Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican from Wisconsin who took
advantage of peoples concerns about communism by making unsupported claims that members of the state department were communists. These communist fear-mongering tactics became known as McCarthyism. Finally, in 1954 McCarthy went too far as he accused high ranking Army officers of being Communists. In the televised proceedings, McCarthys bullying of witnesses alienated the national audience. But three years later he died of alcoholism at age 49. Today, these Congressional witch-hunts and redbaiting" sympathies are universally discredited as abuses of power. The history of the blacklist era has come to stand for censorship, and political despotism
and is regarded as a shameful chapter in modern American history. ARMS RACE When the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb Truman had to make a terrible decision whether to develop an even more horrifying weapon. U.S. began working on a bomb 1000 times stronger than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima the hydrogen bomb. Thus, the U.S. and the Soviet Union began an arms race. Although it began under Truman, the arms race reached new heights under President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
By the time both countries had the H-bomb (1953), President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Joseph Stalin made it clear they were willing to use all military force (including nuclear weapons) to stop each other. This willingness to go to the edge of all-out war was known as brinkmanship. THE COLD WAR SPREADS AROUND THE WORLD As the Cold War heated up, the U.S. depended more on information compiled by the CIA. The CIA began attempts to weaken or overthrow governments unfriendly to the U.S. One of the first covert operations occurred in Iran. The Iran Prime Minster Mossadegh had nationalized Irans oil fields. The U.S. orchestrated the return of the pro-U.S. Shah of Iran in
1953. The U.S. inspired anti-Mossadegh rebels. It worked. The Shah returned, and the oil fields fell under control of Western companies. Eventually, to counter the U.S. defense alliance (NATO), in 1955 the Soviets formed their own mutual defense alliance known as the Warsaw Pact (E. Germany, Poland, Romania, Hungary, etc.). In 1953, Stalin passed away from a stroke and there was no welldefined way for one leader to succeed another. For the first few years, a group of leaders shared power, but eventually Nikita Khrushchev gained power. THE COLD WAR TAKES TO THE SKIES The Cold War was even fought in space! The Space Race was initially dominated by the Soviets.
On October 4, 1957, the Soviets launched Sputnik, the worlds first artificial satellite. Sputnik traveled around earth at 18,000 miles an hour, circling the globe every 96 minutes. During this time, the CIA began secret high-altitude spy missions over Soviet territory using the U-2 Spy Plane. The U-2s infra-red cameras took detailed pictures of Soviet troop movements and missile sites. But on May 1, 1960, Gary Powers U-2 spy plane was shot down over Soviet territory. Powers parachuted into Soviet territory, was captured and sentenced to 10-years in prison. Because of this incident, the 1960s opened with tension between the two superpowers greater than ever.
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