The Restoration & the th A 18 Time Century: of Writing & Revolution Introduction 1600-1800 People from England poured into North America Sought freedom from
religious persecution Sought money made from lands Revolutionary War 1775- Colonies rebel against England & gain their independence Where Does the Term
Restoration Come from? King James I dies In 1649, King Charles I - After seeing his rights as king slashed by Parliament, Charles lashed out against Parliament. Puritans thought he was too Catholic London was scandalized and the king was forced to flee the city. The war between the Roundheads (supporters of parliament) and the Cavaliers (supporters of
the King) began. Charles I was executed, Oliver Cromwell His son Charles II was exiled (19 years old at the time) From 1649-1660 England was ruled by the Lord High Protector, Oliver Cromwell and
Parliament. Established Commonwealth of England Bloodless Rebellion Charles II (son of Charles I) is restored as monarch RESTORATION James tried to force people to follow his Roman Catholic faith. He
was very unpopular because of his persecution of the Protestants, and he was hated by the people. Had 12 bastard children by 7 mistresses Known for hedonistic ways Brought the theaters back King James II Charles IIs brother Last Catholic monarch Protestant son-in-law and
nephew William of Orange (Dutch) invaded England and took over the crown with his Protestant wife Mary Called the GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Mary was the daughter of James II The Pretender and
Jacobites James II abdicated and moved to France to live out the rest of his life as a Pretender at court with his cousin King Louis XIV Died in exile His followers who wanted a Catholic king back on the throne were called Jacobites Theses followers as wells as the followers of his son and grandson led
England is Exhausted Exhausted from 20 years of civil war The Bubonic Plague (31,000 people died at its peak) 1666-Fire that left 2/3 of Londoners homeless However British military forces establish
new settlements around the globe Middle class Several Names for This Time Period
Augustan Age Neoclassical Age Enlightenment Age of Reason Neoclassical Age: Comparisons with ComparisonRome with Rome Octavians rule (63 B.C.
to A.D. 14) He restored peace and order after Julius Caesars assassination Stuart monarchs in England do the same Neoclassical Age: Comparisons with Roman Senate Rome hailed Augustus
2nd founder of Rome English people brought back son of Charles I from exile in France-crowned him King Charles II their new savior Even dug up Oliver Cromwells corpse to execute him for treason against the crown.
Neoclassical Age: Comparisons with English writers modeled their Rome works on old Latin classics The imitated Latin works hence the name Neoclassical or new classic Reason &
Enlightenment: How? In the Asking old days, changes in nature and the heavens were seen as punishment for bad behavior (superstitions) Enlightenment They asked Why?
Birth of Modern English Prose John Dryden founder & First True Master Age of Dryden 1631-1700 Perfected the technique of English poetry, regularizing Changes in Religion Deism: Universe was
like a giant clock set into motion by the Creator/ God who withdrew from the Voltaire let it mechanism and run by itself French writer
who makes Religion & Politics: Repression of Minority Sects Religion determined peoples politics Charles II reestablished the
Anglican Church It became the official Church of England and still is today Charles II Addicted to the Theatre Charles repealed ban on theater
performances Female actors were allowed Witty comedies were produced Play reflected the life of the rich- Age of Satire Most accomplished literary artists of the period Alexander Pope Age
of Pope Addressed works to educated & leisure classes attacked them for their immorality & * Pope & Swift deplored corrupt bad taste politics, commercialism, materialism, & moral corruption. He loved order,
Journalism Daniel Defoe stood for middle class values Thrift, prudence, industry, & respectability Followed new profession of journalism Reformer of public morals Public Poetry Augustan Poets thought society served a public, not a private function
Would decide what kind of poem they would write before they wrote it Public Poetry Many popular kinds of poetry were inherited from classical forms. Poems written to mourn the death of someone
or something lost -- Satire: Ridicules human Elegy: First English Novels means something new Long fictional novels Defoe wrote Robinson Crusoe Harry Fielding wrote Women were among the most Tom Jones
eager Novel readers. Samuel Johnson Age of Johnson His views were conservative and traditional Criticized progress
End of the Restoration Industrial Revolution begins to turn English cities into filthy, smoky slums. Writers return to folk themes and nature for inspiration Thus, Romanticism is born.
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