The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle is the natural process that rocks in the Earth's crust go through, that involves them continuously transforming into
igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. What is a Rock? Naturally Occurring (not man made) Solid
Mixture of minerals and organic matter What makes a rock different from a mineral? Rock Both
Mineral Made of one or more minerals Solid Made of 1 type of element
Random crystal or no crystal structure Naturally Occurring Orderly crystal structure Quartz Granite = Feldspar
Muscovite Types of Rocks Sedimentary: Sandstone Metamorphic: Gneiss
Igneous: Diorite Igneous Rocks Igneous Rocks are formed from Magma and Lava Igneous rocks are classified by where they form
Intrusive forms when magma cools in the Earth vs . Extrusive
forms when lava cools on Earths surface Intrusive Vs. Extrusive Diorite Granite
Basalt Pegmatite Gabbro Rhyolite
Andesite Scoria Igneous Rocks: Crystal Size and Cooling Time Location of Rock Crystal Size
Intrusive (in earth) Extrusive (earth surface) Large crystals Small crystals
Longer cooling time Shorter cooling time Picture Cooling time Sedimentary
Rocks Sedimentary Rocks form from sediment or rock particles Sediment is material that is deposited by air, water, or ice. These materials can be: tiny pieces of rock broken minerals
pieces of plants and animal remains How do sedimentary rocks form? Sediments pile on top of each other on land or in water. As sediments pile, they become compacted and cement together. This forms cemented layers of sediment.
Sedimentation Process Sedimentary Rock Layers Sedimentary Rock Layers Some rocks form from
plants or shells Coal- created from the remains of plants (dead wood, bark, leaves, stems, and roots) The coal we use today started forming millions of year ago in swamps Limestone- created from the shells and skeletons of ocean organisms.
Limestone Formation Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Extreme heat and pressure can change rocks.
The original rock is called the parent rock The new rock formed is called the metamorphic rock Heat and pressure change the structure of the parent rock and their minerals recrystallize Examples of
Metamorphic Rocks Extreme heat and pressure Parent Rock Shale Metamorphic Rock Slate
Examples of Metamorphic Rocks Extreme heat and pressure Parent Rock Limestone
Metamorphic Rock Marble Examples of Metamorphic Rocks Extreme heat and pressure Parent Rock
Mica Metamorphic Rock Phyllite When a rock forms, does it stay that way forever? NO!!!!!!
Rocks are always changing by processes like: Weathering Melting Erosion Cooling Compaction Cementation
Composition of Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are mainly composed of silicate minerals (quartz, feldspar,etc.) Rocks with high silicate levels-are typically light in color ex: granite, rhyolite Rocks with low silicate levels- dark in color
ex: gabbro and basalt IGNEOUS ROCKS BASALT RHYOLITE Composition of Igneous
Rocks Igneous rocks are mainly composed of silicate minerals (quartz, feldspar,etc.) Rocks with high silicate levels-are typically light in color ex: granite, rhyolite Rocks with low silicate levels- dark in color ex: gabbro and basalt
Igneous rocks make long-lasting landforms 1. Intrusive rock formations-as magma pushes up toward Earths surface, it makes channels and other formations underground. 2. Extrusive rock formations builds plateaus when erupting from long crack gently sloping volcanoes (Hawaiian islands) cone-shaped volcanoes
(1). contains greater amount of silica (2). erupts explosively (3). Mount St. Helens is an example RECAP: Rock cycle-the set of natural processes that form, change, break down, and reform rocks
Our world is built of rocks Rocks have many purposes 1. used to build houses and skyscrapers 2. great source of metals 3. used to carve statues and other works of art
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