THE ROMAN EMPIRE OPHS World History Romulus and Remus Rome was founded in 753 B.C by twin sons Romulus and Remus as legend goes and was near the Tiber River (in Italy)
The Creation of a Republic After Rome last king (Tarquin the Proud) a harsh leader they vowed never again to be ruled and created a Republic. Allowing citizens rights and freeborn males the right to
vote. Early Republic Power Struggles In early republic days two groups struggled for power: The Patricians (wealthy landowners who held most of the power)
The Plebeians (farmers/merchants) who had the majority of the population. Plebeians were allowed to form their own assembly called the Tribunes; they protected their rights from unfair treatment. A victory for
the Plebeians was a set of written laws the twelve tables; giving them protection from the law. Roman Government
In their government they had a consuls, like a king that controlled the army and government but limited terms, a senate with 300 members creating policy/laws and it times of crisis they could appoint a dictator with absolute power only
lasting 6 months. Greatness of Rome Great value was placed on their military; land ownership was required to serve; organized into legions; key
factor to their rise to greatness! WEALTH The Roman Empire grew to increase their wealth! There location in the Italian peninsular helped them develop; because of its location it helped the
Romans control the Mediterranean region $$$ Mmmm.gold coins. Rome Expands Rome sought to expand and by 265 B.C
they had nearly all of Italy. Rome Expands With the conquered land the conquered received full citizenship, some got all but the vote and the new allies needed to supply troops and be loyal to Rome for Rome to leave them alone.
This is the policy that created their successful empire. Rome Expands Punic Wars Since The Romans were located by the Mediterranean Sea this helped trade but brought them into direct conflict with the city of Carthage. In 264 B.C the Punic
Wars started ending in 146 BC Finally a new general was able to defeat Hannibals (Carthage brilliant leader) After Rome set Carthage afire and sold the people into slaves; their territory became a Roman providence. Punic Wars Roman Empire 70 BC
By 70 B.C. with the addition of Spain the Roman Empire was huge. Roman Problems AS Rome grew the gap
between rich and poor grew wider; two tribunes tried to aid the poor but were killed. Military started to weaken by picking up paid soldiers only loyal to their commander. Julius Caesar 60 B.C. Julius Caesar joined forces
with Crauss and Pompey and for the next ten years they ruled Rome as a triumvirates (group of 3 rulers). He then after a year appointed himself Governor of Gaul and after a gruesome campaign conquered all and earned his mens loyalty by Julius Caesar After Pompey
ordered Caesar to return home (fearing his power) Caesar disobeyed him and drove him out of Roman and became dictator for life in
Julius Caesar Caesar was an absolute ruler BUT he: granted citizenship, expanded the senate, helped poor (jobs), and paid soldiers more. Fearing his power and popularity, 2 senators stabbed him to death. = Civil War. After the death of Caesar Three of Caesars supporters took control
of Rome = 2nd triumvirate. Although there alliance quickly turned to war with Octavian (Caesars adopted son) winning and being renamed AUGUSTUS (derived from emperor)
Rome was at the peak of their power during 27 BC 180 AD which is known as Pax Romana: 60-80 million people living in peace! This was due to Augustus stabilizing the government and creating civil service jobs. All Roads Lead toROME! 90% of
Romans engaged in agriculture and trade was huge in Roman thanks to the roads the military built.
Roman Life They valued discipline, strength
and loyalty. (Very practical people) Slaves were a big part of the culture possibly 1/3 of their population Gladiators! God and Goddess were worshipped and so was
worshipping the emperor (official religion) Distribution of Wealth The rich lived extravagantly, however most barely had enough to survive. Christianity and Rome
Christianity rose through the Roman Empire; Jewish people who believed Jesus was the Messiah. Pontius Pilate the Roman governor accused him of defying Romes authority = crucified. Christianity and Rome The religion Christianity
was created and spread thanks to Paul (apostle), common language (Latin and Greek), and easier travel. Twice the Jews rebelled and died in fighting. Christians were also killed for going against Rome and persecuted (killed/exiled)
Constantine In 313 a Roman emperor Constantine ended the conflict when after praying saying he says an image of a cross and therefore now approved of the religion and by 380
A.D it was the official religion of the Roman Empire. The Decline of Rome After Pax Romana Rome begin to decline: 1) 2)
Economy weakened because hostile tribes, limited expansion, no new resources, raised taxes, created inflation by making coins with less silver and farms hurt (soil and destroyed during war) Military/political turmoil: soldiers not as loyal and citizens not as loyal. (Pg. 174 chart) Rome Holds On Although Rome still lasted for another 200
years due to reform minded emperors like Diocletian and Constantine. Diocletian Diocletian: ruled with an iron fist but double the army, set prices which fixed inflation, claim his ancestors were Gods,
divided the empire into east and west. Sadly after he retired civil war broke out. Constantine Constantine was able to regain control over west and then east restoring order to Rome: he moved
the capital to Byzantine which was in the middle of east and west and later rename Constantinople. After his death the empire would be divided again with the west crumbling Fall of Rome Why did the Western Empire
crumble? 1) 2) German invading; due to the Huns (Mongols) Attila the Hun became a direct threat waging war but never able to take
Constantinople 3) No emperor to rule. Pg. 177 Fall of Rome The East on the other hand became known as the Byzantine and did
great until 1453 when they fell to the Ottoman Empire Turks, Arabs, and European Crusades. What Rome Left Us Romans last impact on the world: Art, mosaics, paintings, aqueducts (brought water into towns)
literature, philosophy, government (509 B.C influenced us in 1776) Latin language, Christianity, Architectural structures and bridges, (Coliseum) system of laws (equality, need to be proved guilty etc)
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