The SEN(D) Codes of Practice - Northumberland Education
Responding to the needs of children with SEMH 1st of November 2016 Fintan J ORegan : www.fintanoregan.com [email protected] Core issues Learning Socialisation Behaviour
2 Biology Male brains are approximately 10-15% heavier than female brains, higher amount of myelinated axons and greater amount (33%)of synapses Marner, L.; Nyengaard, J.R.; Tang, Y.; Pakkenberg, B. (2003). "Marked loss of myelinated nerve fibers in the human brain with age". J Comp Neurol. 3 Biology Female brain processes verbal language simultaneously in both sides of the brain,
while men tend to process it in the left side only Females have larger Wernicke's and Broca's areas (language processing) Harasty J., Double K.L., Halliday, G.M., Kril, J.J., and McRitchie, D.A. Language-associated cortical regions are proportionally larger in the female brain. Archives in Neurology vol 54 (2) 171-6, 1997 4 So are boys and girls brains different The most profound differences between girls and boys is not in brain structure per se, but rather in the sequence of the development of the various brain regions
The brain develops in a different sequence, and different tempo in girls compared with boys The differences actually diminish as a function of age, from age 9 through to age 22 Northwestern University 2010 Dr L.Sax 5 Boys Boys like socialite learning
Boys like active learning Boys lower boredom level Boys like to know 3 main things S. Biddulf 1996 6 Specific Learning Difficulties
Input: Visual Perception/Auditory Perception Integration: Sequencing, Organisation, Abstraction Memory: Short Term/Long Term Output: Motor/Oral 7 ASD Triad of social impairment: Social communication Social imagination Social interaction ..also sensory sensitivity and processing
8 Signs of autism in girls Diagnosis of ASD is based on the triad of impairments, identified by Wing and Gould in 1979. But girls can present differently to boys in each of these areas of impairment. (Holtman et al., 2007) Social interaction: Boys with ASD tend not to appear motivated to be socially interactive, but girls on the spectrum do. However, girls have a history of failure in achieving and maintaining friendships
Girls gravitate towards older girls, who tend to mother them and act as a form of social protection Girls with Aspergers may be unnecessarily dependent on their mother (or other primary carer) whom they regard as their best friend and confidante in a social world which they find challenging and frightening. Social Communication Boys engage in disruptive behaviours, whereas girls may be persistently ill to gain what they want or control their situation Girls appear more able to concentrate than boys, who become distracted more easily and can be disruptive Girls tend to learn social behaviours by observation and copying, which can disguise their social deficits
Girls may find the idea of social hierarchy difficult, so they can respond inappropriately to people in authority, such as teachers (Holtman et al., 2007) The explosive child Inflexibility + inflexibility = meltdown Ross Greene 2004 12 ADHD
A developmental disorder Pervasive affecting more than one setting Enduring- difficulties beyond childhood. Neurological condition What we know Genetic influences are very strong Several changes in the DNA of chromosomes are now known to be associated with ADHD, these changes are in the genes that control specific neurotransmitters especially dopamine
14 Symptom groups Inattention Does not pay attention Avoids sustained effort Doesnt seem to listen when spoken to Fails to finish tasks/assignments Cant organise Loses things, forgetful
Easily distracted Hyperactivity Fidgets Leaves seat in class Runs/climbs excessively Cannot play/work quietly Always on the go Talks excessively* Impulsivity
Talks excessively Blurts out answers Cannot await turn Interrupts others Intrudes on others Social clumsiness / Response Inhibition Got to say it Got to say it
now.. Are children with ADHD always Inattentive and Hyperactive ? Their behaviour will vary according to the degree to which rules are managed, the amount of structure and support for compliance and the degree to which the person is interested in the activity Mike Gordon 1992
Girls with ADHD Their problems are frequently under-appreciated May be inattentive only If hyperactive, may present differently Oppositional Defiant Disorder A pattern of negativistic, hostile and defiant behaviour lasting at least 6 months, during which four or more of the following are present: often loses temper often argues with adults often actively defies or refuses to comply
with adults requests or rules often deliberately annoys people Source: Attention/deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM IV 4th ed. Washington, DC.: American Psychiatric Press; 1194: 78-85. ODD ctd. often blames others for his or her mistakes or behaviour is often touchy or easily annoyed by others is often angry or resentful is often spiteful and vindictive Source: Attention/deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM IV 4th ed. Washington, DC.: American Psychiatric Press; 1194: 78-85.
Rileys Rules regarding ODD They live in fantasy land where they can defeat all authority figures They are optimistic and fail to learn from experience You must be fair to me no matter how I treat you Seek revenge when angered Need to feel tough Feel you will run out of moves eventually Feel equal to their parents Emulate the behaviour of their least successful peers Answer most questions with I dont know Douglas Riley the Defiant Child 1999
SF3R Resilie Flex nce ibility Relatio nships Struct ure Rappo rt Fintan ORegan 2006 Troubleshooting Challenging Behaviour Continuum publications Structure in terms of rules Reduce anxiety
Enhance motivation, confidence and self esteem Enhance concentration and reduce distractions Facilitate independence In general Have you cut out external distractions Are you aware of the danger spots Can you arrange the seating plan to reduce potential trouble spots Can you see them at all times Do you control exits and entrances Is your mobility fit for purpose Does your equipment work and do have your materials in advance
Tips for Text for Dyslexia Typing best read when it is a minimum 12 or 14 point font size Do not underline Use bold to emphasise words Use lower case than capitals Use Sans Serif texts such as Ariel, Verdana, Comic
Sans , Trebuchet, Tahoma Matt paper than other shiny options 25 Tips for ASD Provide area in the class where the student can have their own space Ensure element of continuity and prepare students in advance for changes Visual task list when possible Explain jokes, idioms and figures of speech Giving instructions to children
Maintain eye contact (or not) with students during verbal instruction. Simplify complex directions. Avoid multiple commands. Make sure the student comprehends before beginning the task.
Use Visual aids ( ie PECS) to supplement instructions and to transmit important points Tips for ADHD Allow student to fiddle with stress ball or tangle toy Give short breaks between assignments Consider weighted vests for younger children Develop work stations plus headsets Include fun starters, video clips, games, energizers, magic tricks and brain teasers Give whole class stretching exercises midway through
Group situations Have the child sit near teacher / away from distractions Pair the child with strong role models (both academic and social) Move the child away from temptation Try and work out what are the main distracters
(auditory, visual, kinaesthetic, internal) Reduce expectations of seat work Provide alternative environments for some tasks and activities Technology Students with ADHD , ASD and SpLD respond well to an individualised or 1 -1 setting Attention is focused on the screen
Multi-sensory experience Non-threatening: can retry problems, constant feedback and reinforcement Impersonal: computer doesn't yell or have favourites
Variety of presentation; attend to novel stimuli Student can control pace, flexible: programmed to do things Rapid assessment Game like approach: challenge Communication
7% words 38% Tonality, Volume and Tempo 55% non verbal signals Assertive Body language Flexible on eye contact Height/level positioning
Relaxed Nodding Personal space balance Facial expressions
Not fidgeting Focused, active listening Assertive Sentence starters Lets.. I need you to........
In five minutes you will have. When I return I will see.. Today we are going to.. You will be..
I expect you to.. I know that you will Thank you for Do it with flowers.. Instead of saying
Maybe try saying Be quiet! Cant you see Im talking? Please dont interrupt How many times do I have to tell you? Please listen carefully Youre always getting into trouble Do you need me to help you with this? David get back in your seat
David you should be sitting down Im warning you! (((Angrily. Stop it Please listen to me. III need you to get back on task/line/learning Refocusing the conversation Young person Adult It wasnt me
I hear what you are saying. But they were doing the same thing I understand.. Im going to report /sue you I was only.. Maybe you were.and yet. You are not being fair Its boring You are annoying Be that as it may.
Yes I may appear unfair Yes you may think it boring yet That could be true however what I need to Anger and Rage Anger is a real feeling and we all have the right to feel angry when we feel our needs are not being met Rage is a protracted burst of anger which often gives the protagonist a feeling of power over the person at the receiving end. Anger is like a Storm Storms happen and they dont ask permission
Sometimes you get warnings (gathering clouds, changes in pressure or wind direction, light fading, sudden darkness) Sometimes storms appear out of the blue Warning Signs Voices getting louder Muttering under their teeth Repetitive body movement e.g. tapping, rocking
Screwing up paper or scribbling on a page Changes in eye contact Diffusing Get in quick and be positive Divert the child on to something else Tell them what you want not what they want Relocation Active listening Calming body Language Humour Rebuilding relationships Listen to the angry person and accept their version of events
Show that you are seriously considering the information you have been given even if it feels inconsistent with what you feel may have happened Dont judge the person Show them that you indeed understand why they may have been so angry Discussion Tell us about a recent incident What happened?
What did you do? How did it end? How did you feel afterwards? 4 kinds of Bullying Verbal Bullying Physical Bullying Relational Bullying Cyber bullying Teasing
Allows the teaser and teased to change roles Is not intended to hurt the other person Maintains the dignity of the people involved Is meant to get both parties to have fun Is only a small part of a number of activities kids have in common Is discontinued when person teased becomes upset or annoyed Taunting Is based on an imbalance of power and is one sided Is intended to harm Involves cruel, racist of bigoted comments thinly
described as jokes Includes laughter directed at the target and not with the target Induces fear of physical bullying Continues when the targeted child becomes distressed or objects to the taunts The bullied can be someone..
Who is new in the school Who is fat, thin, short or tall Who is submissive Who is annoying Who is passive Who is poor or rich Who has a different accent, skin colour or culture Who has a particular interest, belief Who may appear to be sexually promiscuous or might be gay
Who has acne, is deemed ugly, wears classes, wears braces etc.. Who has SEN (is 2 to 3 X more likely to be bullied) Is in the wrong place at the wrong time The bullied allows bullying because They are ashamed of being bullied They are afraid of retaliation They dont think anyone can help them They dont think anyone will help them
They have bought into the idea that bullying is part of life and they should accept it Passive Victims 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. They have a high level of anxiety and insecurity. They are cautious, sensitive and
quiet. They have low self-esteem. They have few friends. They have a negative attitude towards violence. A .Train The Bullying Problem 1995 Provocative Victims 1) 2) 3)
4) 5) When attacked by the bully they try to retaliate. They may try to attack other children weaker that themselves. They could be described as hyperactive as they are restless and unable to concentrate. They may be clumsy and immature. They may be disliked by others, including teachers, because they irritate and create tension. A .Train The Bullying Problem 1995
The Bystander Peers were involved in some capacity of 85% of bullying episodes Peers reinforced the bullying in 81% of episodes Peers were more respectful towards the bully than the targets Peers were active participants in 48% of episodes Peers were interviewed in only 13% of incidents in which they were present Debra Pepler Toronto Study 1995 The Bystander does not intervene because.. They are afraid of getting hurt themselves
They are afraid of being the new target They are afraid of making the situation worse They do not know what to do What should be done Assessment of the situation
Induction procedures Code of Conduct for Parents Code of Conduct for Teachers Code of Conduct for Children Looking at Trouble Spots An anti- bullying policy Strategies to combat the issue Problem solving ABC When do the problems occur? (time of day, specific situations)
What are the triggers (interaction with others, boredom, particular tasks) In confrontation how does he/she react In what way does your response to the child affect the outcome
What seems to have a positive affect (your approach; humour, change of task) Value of praise Praise can improve self-esteem, self-reliance, autonomy, achievement and motivation Praise will have different effects according to the gender, home background, abilities and personality of pupils Praise should be seen as encouragement and as part of a continuing process Praise effort not ability in students
Fixed mindset Growth mindset Intelligence is static Avoid challenge Ignore or devalue criticism Feel threatened by others success May plateau early
Intelligence can be developed Relish challenge Learn from criticism Gain inspiration by others success Continue to achieve Praise effort not ability Well done sue you are good at this Responses that praise people for being clever, lead to a fixed mindset resulting in decreasing motivation and a lack of resilience They lead to students to believe that Success is due to innate attributes Difficulties are personal weakness
Praise effort not ability Yes that was good thinking Sue, well done for following the idea through Responses like these that praise effort can lead to involvement and perseverance and learning lead to a growth mindset and increase motivation They lead students to believe Success comes from effort and use of strategies Errors and mistakes are a learning opportunities Types of praise Wallpaper praise..great , lovely Personal Praise..you are brilliant Directed praisewell done for following the rule Reflective praise.you should feel good about this
work Contextual praise.this assignment is at such an advanced Level that I need to show it to so that we can use it in .. Communication: Empathy We listen to those: We like and respect We like and respect those with whom we can identify or identify with us We pay attention to those whom we believe mean what they say Sean Misteil 1997
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