The Shapes of Orbitals:

The Shapes of Orbitals:

Energy Level Diagrams The Modern Atomic Theory The Bohr Model (Planetary Model)

Quantum Theory Analogy: Hotel with floors

many and different types of rooms Whats the difference? Electrons

occupy particular regions (areas) of space called orbitals. i.e. Orbitals farther from It

is impossible to know the precise (exact) location of the electron. Instead, we can only know the probability of finding electrons in a specific region.

Orbit vs. Orbital Orbit: A definite circular path around the nucleus. Orbital: A region of

space an electron is likely to be found. Energy Level Energy Level Diagram Energy Level (n)

=The specific amount of energy an atoms electron possess. Orbital energy increases with increasing n E.g. E for n=4 > E for n=2.

Energy Level Diagram for a MultiElectron Atom numbers = energy level (n) letters = orbital type 1 dashed lines= 1 orbital

(Max. 2 e- per dashed line) Orbitals Shell

having the same n value (same floor in a hotel) For n = 2, the shell consists of one 2s orbital, and three 2p orbitals For n = 3, the shell consists of one 3s orbital, three 3p

orbitals, and five 3d orbitals. Subshell Subshell: Orbitals of the

same type of n value and letter. The subshell 2p consists of a set of three 2p-orbitals. The subhell 3d consists of a set of five 3d-orbitals.

Summary For a given value of n, n different types of orbitals are possible. D) Orbitals Shapes

There are 4 types of orbitals: s, p, d, & f orbitals (Some Pilots Dont Fly). They come in different 3D shapes. S Orbitals

P Orbitals D Orbitals F Orbitals

D. Application of Theory Line Spectrum Absorbs energy excited state higher orbital Releases energy

ground state lower orbital Note: Orbital = Energy Level Quantum energy is the energy difference between the energy levels

Energy (& frequency) increases from red to

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