The Solar System

The Solar System

Chap 11: The Jovian Planet Systems TOTALLY different planets than our familiar next door neighbors! They formed beyond the frost line so ices

could form and seed the early stages of agglomeration. Theres a lot more ice-type raw material than rock-type raw material, so you get bigger planets!

How a Planet Retains an Atmosphere Surface gravity must be high enough and surface temperature must be low enough, that the atmosphere molecules dont leak away

during the 4.6 billion years since formation. Also,Jovian Planets are so distant and so cold, they formed from seeds of ice, MUCH more common than rocky seeds Net Result: Jovians are mostly atmosphere or (in

Jupiters case) liquid hydrogen Remember the Two Ways a Planet Loses Atmosphere: FirstLeakage!

Lighter molecules move faster, because on average Kinetic Energy = Thermal Energy ()m2 = (3/2)kT For a given temperature, higher mass molecule means lower velocity molecule, is what this equation is telling us

Molecules are continually bouncing off of each other and changing their speed, but if the average speed is higher, a few may be speedy enough to escape the planets gravity. So the lighter gases leak away more quickly over time So. Slow leak! Like air from a bicycle tire

Hydrogen and Helium = 97% of the mass of the solar nebula, and these are the lightest and easiest molecules to lose. But they are NOT lost by Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Mass is high, gravity is high, escape velocity is high, and temperature is low so molecular velocities, even H 2

and He, are also low. Surface Gravity vs. Earths

Mercury = 0.37 and ve = 4.3 km/sec Venus = 0.88 and ve = 10.3 km/sec Earth = 1.00 and ve = 11.2 km/sec Moon = 0.165 and ve = 2.4 km/sec Mars = 0.38 and ve = 5.0 km/sec

Jupiter = 2.64 and ve = 59.5 km/sec Saturn = 1.15 and ve = 35.6 km/sec Uranus = 1.17 and ve = 21.2 km/sec Neptune = 1.18 and ve = 23.6 km/sec Pluto = 0.4 and ve = 1.2 km/sec

The Second way to Lose Atmosphere Impact Cratering Big comets and asteroids hitting the planet

will deposit a lot of kinetic energy which becomes heat, blowing off a significant amount of atmosphere all at once. This is not much of an issue for the outer planets, who have high gravity and very

high mass, so a given impact is unlikely to knock out much atmosphere The Outer Plants: Hydrogen/Helium

Giants 97% of early solar nebula was hydrogen and helium, roughly the same composition of the outer planets then.

Cold temperatures, high mass allow much of these light atoms to be held by gravity for these 4.6 billion years Rocky cores surrounded by deep layers of H, He.

Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,Neptune lineup Jupiter layers

Jupiter is a Stormy Planet High temperatures deep inside mean strong convective flow in the atmosphere.

The rapid rotation (day = 12 hrs) and large diameter means very strong velocity gradient from equator to poles. So, strong Coriolis force, making atmospheric motions turn into circulations like hurricanes

Result is lots of big storms Jupiter storms The Great Red Spot

As big as 3 Earths side-by-side in diameter This is a high pressure (=anti-cyclone) system. Winds are spiraling away from the Great Red Spot. Analog is the high pressure system which parks over the Nevada during much of the

Autumn, sending dry winds over California making it our fire season. Jupiters storms usually last months or maybe a year or so, but the Great Red Spot has been on Jupiter since we first put a telescope on it to see;

over 400 years now. Jupiter redspots GRS storms

Jupiter gives off more heat than it receives from the sun. Its HOT under those cold outer

atmosphere visible clouds Why? Heat of formation takes a LONG time to dissipate, but mainly its because it is still slowly collapsing, converting gravitational potential energy into heat

You can see the hotter layers in infrared pictures Jupiter IR, excess heat

Jupiter has the right ingredients for a Strong Magnetic Field Rapid rotation Hot interior and strong temperature gradient driving convection of

An electrically conducting interior in this case, liquid hydrogen under so much pressure it behaves like a metal. The result the most powerful magnetic field of any planet by far.

How a Magnetic Field Acts on Charges Magnetic field lines are a visualization which helps us see how charges will interact with that field

Charges will spiral around the field line direction. In other words, they feel a sideways force to their direction of motion, and sideways to the field line direction Hence, field lines channel charged particles so they must move along the field line direction, not perpendicular to it

This channels solar wind particles so they impact the atmospheres of planets near the north and south magnetic poles At these spots, we see the atmosphere glow from the ionization of the atmosphere atoms and recombination

(exactly like flourescent light bulbs) we call this : Aurorae Jupiters Aurora

The strong convection leads to Lightening (bright spots here) Jupiter ring

Jupiters Ring, Seen Edgeon magnetosphere

Origin of Jupiters Ring? Might be the remnants of a comet (icy dirtball) that was captured into an orbit and the ices eroded away by the ions trapped in the magnetic field

But current best guess is that its material launched into orbit around Jupiter by Ios volcanoes. The ring is made up of micron-sized particles, like volcanic ash.

Jupiters Moons 63 at last count The 4 big ones are roughly the size of our own moon 1,500 3,000 miles across

From closer to farther, they are: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto Ios orbit is a bit elliptical, and only a couple Jupiter diameters away from Jupiter this has a huge effect on the properties of

this little moon Jupiter + Io Jupiters huge gravity and the

closeness of Io means it experiences strong tidal stretching This tidal force varies from weaker to stronger as Io goes from closer to farther from Jupiter in its

slightly elliptical orbit. This rhythmic squeezing and stretching of the moon heats the interior tidal friction Its surprisingly effective. The volcanoes have vent temperatures of 2,000F, melting sulfur, a

relatively light element that is rich in the upper layers, and vaporizing any water or other icey type materials. Io globe

Io cutaway Io globe closer in

Io pele Io volcano on limb Io volcano

Io volcano closeup Io surface hi res

Summary on Io Io is stretched more, then less, then more, then lessetc for each and every 42 hr orbit. This converts orbital kinetic energy into thermal energy, heating the interior above the melting point of sulfur (239F

or 115C), and it burbles up through cracks to make volcanoes. Constant volcanic eruptions quickly fill in all craters that may have existed Volcanic particles can escape Ios weak gravity. And

eventually friction decays the particles orbits and the material settles onto Jupiter These compounds of sulfur especially, are the source of Jupiters dramatic colors on its clouds.

Europa Also tidally heated, but less so It was not so hot as to evaporate water away. Water is a very common molecule. Europa is an arctic world of salt water

covered by ice Cracks show characteristics of salt-water pressure ridges Intriguing salt water ocean warm enough to support life, is what the evidence

suggests. Europa interior cutaway Pressure ridges, sharpened by image

processing. The Reddish color likely mineral salt evaporate Strike-Slip Faults: Earth vs. Europa

One model- thermal vents from the hot core drive convection in the ocean, driving tectonics in the ice crust Antarcticas Lake Vida closest

analogue to Europa? Despite being very dark (<1% sunlit vs surface), much saltier than ocean, and covered with permanent ice, the brine layer at the

bottom is full of microbial life Ganymede Farther from Jupiter; less tidal heating. But bigger than any other moon in the

solar system, bigger than Mercury (3200 miles) This helped it retain some heat, and tidal heating is still able to make an ice/ slush layer deep under the surface ice

Not believed to be tectonically active now, but was in the distant past see these wrinkles? Ganymede globe gray

ganymede Callisto Last and Farthest of the Galilean

Moons Note the ancient surface, which you can tell because of the many impact scars. Tidal friction goes as 1/r3, and this far from Jupiter (4.5 times farther than Io), Callisto

experiences only 1% of the tidal heating as Io. Not enough to melt ice. Callisto globe

Callisto cratering Callisto ice spires Jupiter small rocky moons

None of Jupiters Moons have true atmospheres Not enough gravity to hold an atmosphere. It may also be that solar wind particles held

in Jupiters powerful magnetic field act to strip away any primitive atmosphere they may have once had No atmosphere, no weather, no climate.. but interesting nonetheless!

Saturn Slightly smaller than Jupiter, but much less massive. Not enough mass (gravity) to compress the

hydrogen into a thick liquid layer like Jupiter So, its mostly a gaseous hydrogen and helium atmosphere Most obvious feature very

reflective and massive rings saturnHST Saturn hst2

Saturn rings Cassini division close up

Mimas and rings Saturn dragon storm Saturn aurorae

Saturn aurorae sequence The Cassini Mission Continues to Explore the Saturn System

Cassini also included a spacecraft called Huygens which separated from the main craft and parachuted down to the surface of Titan

Titan Only Moon in the Solar System with a Bonifide

Atmosphere Not a great atmosphere, though Made of. Smog! Actually, mostly Nitrogen (like Earth), but with hydrocarbons making a photochemical

smog component. Atmospheric pressure is just like Earth! Like a very cold Los Angeles Bummer, Dude!

Titan haze from side Titan color Titan b&w oceans

Titan shorelines titan

Titan ocean+canyon Titan impact crater Titan bouldersColor

Phoebe Enceladus

Enceladus surface wedge Enceladus surface Enceladus surface2

Enceladus cracks The Death Star Moon Mimas!

Mimas Rhea cassini

Iapetus The Walnut Moon iapetus One side is Dark Brown

This is the side that leads, while it orbits. The front side. Initial dark deposits perhaps blasted debris from impacts on other moons The material is carbonaceous and complex, and only about a foot thick at least in many places.

Dark areas are lag left over from sublimation of water ice. Darker, lower albedo, absorb more sunlight heat, preferrentially sublimating ice which then re-freezes on the whitish areas. Dark areas may have lost ~20m of depth vs only

10cm of depth on the light areas, during billions of years. NASA scientists now believe that the dark material is lag (residue) from the sublimation (evaporation) of water ice on the surface of

Iapetus,possibly darkened further upon exposure to sunlight. Because of its slow rotation of 79 days (equal to its revolution and the longest in the Saturnian system), Iapetus would have had the warmest daytime surface temperature and coldest nighttime temperature in the Saturnian system even before the development of the color contrast; near the

equator, heat absorption by the dark material results in a daytime temperatures of 129 K in the dark Cassini Regio compared to 113 K in the bright regions The difference in temperature means that ice preferentially sublimates from Cassini, and deposits in the bright areas and especially at the even colder poles. Over geologic time scales, this

would further darken Cassini Regio and brighten the rest of Iapetus, creating a positive feedback thermal runaway process of ever greater contrast in albedo, ending with all exposed ice being lost from Cassini. Over a period of one billion years at current temperatures, dark areas of Iapetus would lose about 20 meters of ice to sublimation, while the

bright regions would lose only 0.1 meters, not considering the ice transferred from the dark regions. This model explains the distribution of light and dark areas, the absence of shades of grey, and the thinness of the dark material covering Cassini. The redistribution of ice is facilitated by Iapetus's

weak gravity, which means that at ambient temperatures a water molecule can migrate from one hemisphere to the other in just a few hops The Walnut Ridge on the

Equator But the trailing side is covered with Carbon Dioxide Ice

Hyperion The SpongeBob Moon! ( animation) Hyperions dark spots are made of

hydrocarbons, and the white material is mostly water ice, but a bit too of CO2 dry ice. The dark hydrocarbons absorb more sunlight and heat and sublimate their way

down making the dimpled surface, is the best current idea of why it looks so bizarre Epithemus

Uranus and Neptune are Instead Dominated by Heavy Elements Uranus About 5 times the diameter of Earth.

Mass of 14 Earths Too little mass to create a liquid hydrogen core. Hydrogen, Helium interior down to small rocky core. Colored Blueish by methane (CH4), which

absorbs red sunlight. Uranus, rings in ir Uranus,ringsHST

Oberon Miranda

Miranda hi res Miranda bullseye Miranda cliff

Neptune Mass of 17 Earths Structure very similar to Uranus Hydrogen, helium, and methane in the

upper atmosphere Neptune HST Neptunes Great Dark Spot

One Big Moon - Triton Triton orbits Neptune in a very elliptical ellipse. It also orbits backwards from Neptunes spin This could not have happened if Triton was

formed from the same protoplanetary condensation as Neptune. Triton must be a former Kuiper Belt Object, captured by Neptune

triton Key Points Chap 11 Jovian Planets and Moons

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune all have Hydrogen as their largest

component, from ices beyond the frost line High mass and cold temps allowed big atmospheres to be retained against the two atmospheric loss mechanisms: impacts, and loss by escape if molecules too fast (i.e. too hot) Jupiter is still collapsing, slightly, under gravity, giving off gravitational

potential energy as heat Saturn has helium turning to rain deep inside, also causing it to give off more heat than it gets from sun Only moon w/ atmosphere: Titan (has hydrological cycle with methane) Strong rotation in all outer planets, makes for strong banded atmospheres

All outer planets have rocky cores surrounded by H,He rich very deep atmospheres. Jupiter gravity high enough to make liquid metallic hydrogen interior, highly conductive, strong magnetic field

Recently Viewed Presentations