The Stanford Prison Experiment - Duquesne University

The Stanford Prison Experiment - Duquesne University

The The Stanford Stanford Prison Prison Experiment Experiment 6/18/13 6/18/13 Allison Williams, Soraya Underwood, Ryan Tercho, Ayana Underwood Faculty Mentor: Dr. Cascio 1 Background Background The experiment was performed in 1971 The experiment was overseen by Dr. Philip Zimbardo PH. D. in Psychology

from Yale It was done in connection with Stanford University Plous, Scott. "Philip G. Zimbardo." Social Psychology Network. 17 Jan 2013. Web. 17 Jun 2013. 2 The The Set Set Up Up The experiment lasted 6 days It occurred in a mock prison setting created at the university Doors with bars, a

yard area etc. Zimbardo, Philip. "Slide tour." Stanford Prison Experiment. 2013. Web. 17 Jun 2013. 3 The The People People Sent out news paper ads The experiment involved 24 male college students in the Stanford area Zimbardo, Philip. "Slide tour." Stanford Prison Experiment. 2013. Web. 17 Jun 2013.

4 The The Experiment Experiment The men were split into two groups: guards and prisoners The prisoners were taken from their house in a mock arrest They were frisked and searched upon entering the mock prison Zimbardo, Philip. "Slide tour." Stanford Prison Experiment. 2013. Web. 17 Jun 2013. They were given an

informed consent form that talked about possible violation of rights and minimal food 5 The The Experiment Experiment (con.) (con.) Often times the prisoners were put in uncomfortable situations such as being awakened at an unreasonable hour or physical punishment A rebellion developed and this caused an even more severe division between the guards and prisoners After the extensive abuse

and other variable situations brought in, the experiment was ended Zimbardo, Philip. "Slide tour." Stanford Prison Experiment. 2013. Web. 17 Jun 2013. 6 Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Principle A states that psychologists must take care of those they work with and thus cause them no harm (1). It states that psychologists protect the welfare and rights of their test subjects. This ethical principle was clearly breached in this experiment due to the physical, emotional and mental consequences the prisoners experienced at the hands of the guards (1).

1."Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct." Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychological Association, 2013. Web. 11 June 2013. 7 -The warden made the prisoners believe that they were terrible people because of the horrific crimes they committed . - The prisoners were humiliated as they were searched, stripped naked and deloused (16). -As is customary in prisons, the prisoner was given a uniform (a dress or smock) the prisoners felt emasculated due to the fact they could not wear underclothes (16). The prisoners were

12. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Arrival of the Prisoners Photo. Stanford Prison Experiment 2013. 10 June 2013. 16. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Stanford Prison Experiment: A Simulation Study of the Psychology of Imprisonment. Social Psychology Network, 2013. Web. 10 June 2013. stripped and searched upon arrival to the prison (12). 8 -Also, the prisoners had to have a heavy chain that was attached to their right ankles and worn at all times (16). -The participants who assumed roles as guards wore the same uniforms and were given clubs. - The chain on the foot is The guards wore similar uniforms and wore sunglasses

to look more menacing (14). uncommon but it was used to convey that they were in a tyrannical environment (16). 13. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Chain on the Ankle Photo. Stanford Prison Experiment 2013. 10 June 2013. 14. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Guards Uniforms Photo. Stanford Prison Experiment 2013. 10 June 2013. 16. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Stanford Prison Experiment: A Simulation Study of the Psychology of Imprisonment. Social Psychology Network, 2013. Web. 10 June 2013. The chain on the right ankle 9 of a prisoner (13). -Due to the consistent use and repetition of the ID numbers (present on the smocks), the prisoners lost their sense of identity (16). - To simulate the shaved heads, which is a practice

that many prisons and the military adhere to, each prisoner had to place a stocking cap on his head. - As a result, everyone began to look more similar because they all had the same hairstyle (16). Prisoner #8612s Identification and Photo (6). 6. Zimbardo, Phillip G. Prisoner 8612 ID Photo. Stanford Prison Experiment 2013. 10 June 2013. 8. Zimbardo, Phillip G. Shaved Heads of Prisoners Photo. Stanford Prison Experiment 2013. 10 June 2013. 16. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Stanford Prison Experiment: A Simulation Study of the Psychology of Imprisonment. Social Psychology Network, 2013. Web. 10 June 2013. The image of a prisoner with a stocking cap to simulate a shaved head (8). 10

Rebellion - On the second day, the prisoners rebelled and the guards were forceful trying to quell the rebellion (2). - They obtained a fire extinguisher, which emitted carbon dioxide and they forced the prisoners away from each door (16). -The prisoners were stripped naked, the The prisoners guards removed the beds, placed the leader were stripped naked after the of the rebellion in The Hole and continued rebellion (7). to harass the prisoners (16). 2. "Our Dark Hearts: The Stanford Prison Experiment." PsyBlog RSS. PsyBlog RSS, 06 Sept. 2007. Web. 12 June 2013. 7. Zimbardo, Phillip G. Punished Rebel Photo. Stanford Prison Experiment 2013. 10 June 2013. 15. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Hole Photo. Stanford Prison Experiment 2013. 10 June 2013. 16. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Stanford Prison Experiment: A Simulation Study of the Psychology of Imprisonment. Social Psychology Network, 2013. Web. 10 June 2013.

The Hole or the place of solitary confinement within the 11 prison (15). -The guards allowed only the three prisoners least involved to have their uniforms and beds, brush their teeth and eat better food in front of the others (16). - After half a day of this treatment, the guards placed the good prisoners in the bad cells and vice versa the prisoners became distrusting of each other. - The guards began to control the behavior of every prisoner and dictate when they could use the bathroom (16). The ultimate goal of the guards: - to diminish the solidarity the prisoners at the beginning of the experiment which in turn made them become more tight knit. 16. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Stanford Prison Experiment: A Simulation Study of the Psychology

of Imprisonment. Social Psychology Network, 2013. Web. 10 June 2013. 12 -The severely oppressive nature of this prison environment caused the prisoners to attempt to escape as some prisoners do in a real jail (16). -The guards were prepared in case the escape did occur: they would bring in more guards, chain the prisoners together and intensify the security already in place. - In retaliation for the failed prison The menial tasks the guards forced the prisoners to do break, the guards began to intimidate involved cleaning with their bare the prisoners even more and made them toilets hands (5).

perform repetitive tasks (16). 5. Zimbardo, Phillip G. Menial Tasks Photo. Stanford Prison Experiment 2013. 10 June 2013. 16. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Stanford Prison Experiment: A Simulation Study of the Psychology of Imprisonment. Social Psychology Network, 2013. Web. 10 June 2013. 13 Principle Principle B: B: Fidelity Fidelity and and Responsibility Responsibility This principle states that psychologists must uphold professional standards of conduct. Also, they must accept responsibility for their behavior and manage practices that could lead to

exploitation or harm (1). The psychologists involved in this experiment upheld the professional standards of conduct (1). 1."Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct." Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychological Association, 2013. Web. 11 June 2013. 14 Zimbardo stated "it followed the guidelines of the Stanford human subjects ethics committee that approved it. There was no deception; all subjects were told in advance that if prisoners, many of their usual rights would be suspended and they would have only minimally adequate diet and health care during the study (4). They, however, did not try to alleviate the harm that was being done as the

experiment progressed. 4. Toole, Kathleen O' "The Stanford Prison Experiment: Still Powerful after All These Years (1/97). Stanford News, 08 Jan. 1997. Web. 10 June 2013. 15 Principle C: Integrity and Principle D: Justice Principle C: Integrity and Principle D: Justice

This experiment did adhere to the third principle of integrity as it states that the psychologists must be truthful, accurate and honest (1). -The advertisement posted said that it would be a study of prison life and that male college students were needed (9). -There was informed consent in this case (9). - -Also, Zimbardo himself did not engage in fraudulent activity and the guards and prisoners were chosen by the flip of a coin (10). - The people participating were deemed The advertisement shown was for the Stanford Prison Experiment (11). normal (10). 1."Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct." Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychological Association, 2013. Web. 11 June 2013. 9. Zimbardo, Phillip G. "Stanford Prison Experiment: Frequently Asked Questions." The Stanford Prison Experiment : A Simulation Study of the

Psychology of Imprisonment. Social Psychology Network, 2013. Web. 12 June 2013. 10. Zimbardo, Phillip G. "Stanford Prison Experiment The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil." St. Clairsville Schools. St. Clairsville-Richland School District, 2013. Web. 11 June 2013. 11. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Advertisement Photo. Stanford Prison Experiment 2013. 10 June 2013. 16 Principle Principle D: D: Justice Justice Principle D states that psychologists must recognize that fairness and justice entitle all persons to access to and benefit from the contributions of psychology and to equal quality in the processes, procedures and services conducted by psychologists (1). In addition, psychologists must take

precautions in order to ensure that unjust practices do not occur (1). 1."Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct." Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychological Association, 2013. Web. 11 June 2013. 17 The guards were not given instructions on how to be guards and they were not given specific boundaries as to the extent of punishment they could inflict (16). - The guards created their own rules, which were implemented by the Warden David Jaffe, an undergraduate from Stanford University (16). The guards were fully consumed by their roles and consequently, the prisoners were left emotionally and mentally debilitated. 16. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Stanford Prison Experiment: A

Simulation Study of the Psychology of Imprisonment. Social Psychology Network, 2013. Web. 10 June 2013. 18 Due to the hardships they endured at the hands of the sadistic guards, prisoners rebelled, then tried to escape and many began to believe that they did something wrong (16). Zimbardo and others saw how depressed and mentally unstable the prisoners became and still did not stop the punishment. - To make it seem more realistic, the prisoners were restricted in terms of visitors and times (16). - The experiment was allowed to run on too long as well because the prisoners were harmed. 16. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Stanford Prison Experiment: A Simulation Study of the Psychology of Imprisonment. Social Psychology Network, 2013. Web. 10 June 2013.

19 Principle Principle E: E: Respect Respect for for Peoples Peoples Rights Rights and and Dignity Dignity Principle E states that psychologists respect the dignity and worth of all people and allow the individuals to have privacy and confidentiality (1). It also states that psychologists respect individual and role differences such as those based on age, gender, race, culture, language,

etc and do not condone prejudice (1). Some portions of this principle were followed; others were not. 1."Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct." Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychological Association, 2013. Web. 11 June 2013. 20 The prisoners privacy, dignity and worth were diminished as they were stripped and searched upon arrival, dehumanized and made to perform menial tasks. However, the experiment did not adhere to the confidentiality aspect because the some of the prisoners and guards names were known and released to the public (3). The role differences aspect was breached because the prisoners were divided into good and bad decreased unity (16).

3. Ratnesar, Romesh. "The Menace Within." Stanford Magazine. Stanford University, 1996. Web. 12 June 2013. 16. Zimbardo, Phillip G. The Stanford Prison Experiment: A Simulation Study of the Psychology of Imprisonment. Social Psychology Network, 2013. Web. 10 June 2013. 21 Consequences and Outcomes 22 The The Prisoners Prisoners Bared the brunt of the consequences: Victims of both physical and mental abuse leading to acute psychological trauma in some. The majority of this was entirely unprovoked and

brought on by groups of guards Many attempted to leave the experiment but could not, even if medical issues were apparent. Two main categories of response: Fight or Flight Complete passiveness and obedience 23 The The Guards Created the brunt of the consequences: Initially, guards were docile and were simply enforcers of the rules set by Zimbardo Began to take advantage of the situation by banning together to humiliate and maim the prisoners Some even assumed more oppressive personas that would produce good results Hawthorne Effect

Most of the abuse occurred at night, when they thought surveillance had stopped. 24 The The Researchers Researchers Today Today David Jaffe, an undergraduate research associate who played the role of prison warden, is now a professor of pediatrics at Washington University. Curtis Banks, a graduate student researcher, became the first African American psychology professor to receive tenure at Princeton University. Craig Haney, a graduate student researcher, became a psychology professor at UC--Santa Cruz and is a leading expert on prison conditions. Christina Maslach, a former graduate student who helped end the study early, is now a psychology professor and vice provost at UC-Berkeley. Philip Zimbardo, who served as principle investigator and prison superintendent, became APA President in 2001 and is now a

professor emeritus at Stanford University. 25 The The APA APA Investigates Investigates A 1973 APA investigation revealed that the Stanford Prison Experiment was in accordance with all ethical guidelines at that time. No sanctions No punishments No consequences 26 Long-term Long-term Impact Impact of of the the Experiment

Experiment After intensive psychological testing, the prisoners showed no signs of long-term psychological damage and had all returned to their baseline assessment taken before the experiment started. The APA has since revised the stringency of its policies regarding human testing: the same experiment could not be repeated today because of its use of human test subjects to explore potentially harmful and unpredictable behavioral studies. 27 Drawing Drawing the Line I was guilty of the sin of omission -- the evil of inaction -- of not providing adequate oversight and surveillance when it was required... the findings came at the expense of human suffering. I am sorry for that and to

this day apologize for contributing to this inhumanity. -Philip Zimbardo, The Lucifer Effect 28 Impact Impact on on Society Society Costs Sets a precedent Is scientific progress at the expense of human suffering permissible? Milgram Experiment, 1961 Mistreatment of human life Random arrests could damage reputations; experiment could have had

long-term psychological effects on both prisoners and guards Benefits Scientific progress Demonstrates how assignment of roles can shape and determine behavior and expanded the realm behavioral psychology A closer look How effective are our prisons at preventing situations like this? What needs changed? How can they become more effective at rehabilitating people? How can funding be better utilized?

29 IV. Recommendations 30 Principle Principle A: A: Beneficence Beneficence and and Nonmaleficence Nonmaleficence The experiment in its entirety was a violation of ethics. Dr. Zimbardo was aware of the potential damaging physical and psychological effects that the experiment could cause. This knowledge was disregarded because without these risks the experiment would have been too controlled and it would not have simulated a true

prison environment. "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct." American Psychological Association. APA, Web. 17 Jun 2013. 31 Human Human Subjects Subjects Review Review Committee Committee Form Form Since human subjects were involved, before the experiment began this ethical principle had been violated when this document was passed: When asked whether or not the subjects could face mental or physical harm Zimbardo responded:

Zimbardo, Philip. "Stanford Prison Experiment ." The Stanford Prison Experiment: A Simulation Study of the Psychology of Imprisonment. Web. 17 Jun 2013. 32 During the experiment the subjects were physically and mentally harmed; however, the experiment still continued when it should have ceased at the first signs of mental breakdown and physical harm Ex. Humiliation/assault/manipulation Zimbardo, Philip. "Stanford Prison Experiment ." The Stanford Prison Experiment: A Simulation Study of the Psychology of Imprisonment. Web. 17 Jun 2013 33

Principle Principle B: B: Fidelity Fidelity and and Responsibility Responsibility Dr. Zimbardo was responsible for the well being of each of the participants in the experiment; however, many could not cope with the amount of stress put upon them. In order to prevent this effect the guards should have been given boundaries, but ultimately this would have added a variable to the experiment. "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct." American Psychological Association. APA, Web. 17 Jun 2013. 34

Surveillance videos show that when some prisoners became distressed the guards punished them because they believed they were weak. (Ex. Prisoner #8612) Dr. Zimbardo was aware of this; however, at this point medical assistance should have been provided despite the fact that #8612 could have been faking his mental breakdown. Zimbardo, Philip. "Stanford Prison Experiment ." The Stanford Prison Experiment: A Simulation Study of the Psychology of Imprisonment. Web. 17 Jun 2013. Google images 35 Principle Principle C: C: Integrity Integrity

The prisoners were lead to believe that they could not easily quit the experiment. Harm was maximized On the Human Subject Committee Form Dr. Zimbardo stated that deception would not be used at any point It should have been stated how and why deception was necessary. "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct." American Psychological Association. APA, Web. 17 Jun 2013. Zimbardo, Philip. "Stanford Prison Experiment ." The Stanford Prison Experiment: A Simulation Study of the Psychology of Imprisonment. Web. 17 Jun 2013. 36 Principle Principle D: D: Justice Justice

Strip searches/reduction in solidarity An objective perspective of the predicted psychological effects of the guards and the prisoners should have been looked at by Dr. Zimbardo and his team. In turn, they would realize that being placed in this highly intense situation could cause the participants to harm themselves and/or each other. "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct." American Psychological Association. APA, Web. 17 Jun 2013. 37 Principle Principle E: E: Respect Respect for for Peoples Peoples Rights Rights and

and Dignity Dignity Although an informed consent form was signed by each of the participants they were unaware of the extent to which they would be humiliated/violated Ex. Ankle chain, cleaning the toilet with bare hands, removal of identity (assigned numbers) "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct." American Psychological Association. APA, Web. 17 Jun 2013. 38 Recommendations Recommendations to to Researchers Researchers and and Scholars

Scholars When an experiment begins to fall apart it must be stopped immediately especially when dealing with human subjects who could endure physical and mental harm. When carrying out an experiment with human subjects the long term psychological effects of their subjects must be considered. Even when long-term effects are not predicted it should be taken into account that long-term effects are possible both negative and positive. 39 Why Why study study this this case? case? It shows how people respond when placed into highly stressful/dangerous situations.

It can explain whether or not prisons are actually successful or ultimately counterproductive. It shows how people conform to the roles they are given. Google images 40

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