The Vietnam War - WCS

The Vietnam War - WCS

The Vietnam War By the Harrys Brief Background Information In World War 2 Japan liberated Vietnam from the French. After the surrender of Japan on the 2nd of September 1945, Ho Chi Minh declared independence in Vietnam. France invaded Vietnam to retake the country. Whilst this was taking place, China became a communist nation in

1949. They then help Ho Chi Minh. Brief Background Information In the south Ngo Dinh Diem rose to power and in 1954 Vietnam was split along the 17th parallel. Leaving Minh in the north and Diem in the south. The Viet Cong was formed in 1960 with the backing of Minh. Diem is highly unpopular and was killed in 1963, shortly before JFK.

August 1964, The gulf of Tonkin incident took place and the Gulf of Tonking resolution was passed. Main Events Timeline 1960 - Viet Cong formed. 1963 - President Kennedy assassinated, Johnson becomes President. 1964 - Gulf of Tonking incident.

1965 - 200,000 US troops sent to Vietnam. 1966 - B-52 Bombers strike North Vietnam ( a year later they were admitted to have failed). Main Events Timeline 1969 - My Lai Village massacre covered by news. 1970 - President Nixon Extends war to Cambodia. 1972 - US heavy bombing of Vietnamese cities.

1973 - Ceasefire agreement signed in Paris. - All remaining troops leave Vietnam. 1974 - Major North Vietnamese offensive on South Vietnam The Presidents and their Involvement Dwight Eisenhower: 1953 to 1961 Following the Truman Doctrine, Eisenhower spoke highly of the domino theory. The domino theory described how communism

would spread. It said that if one country became communist all the bordering countries would follow. He also gave aid to the highly unpopular Ngo Dinh Diem. He supported the Southern Vietnamese. The Presidents and their Involvement John F Kennedy: 1961 to 1963 JFK sent military advisors and military personnel to help the

Southern Vietnamese army. JFK had sent 11,500 advisors the Vietnam by 1962. He did not want to go to war in Vietnam. The Presidents and their Involvement Lyndon B Johnson: 1963 to 1969 Much like Eisenhower, he supported the idea of the domino theory. By 1964 he increased the number of troops in Vietnam to 23,000.

He put forward the Gulf of Tonkin resolution to congress in 1964 after the US Maddox was fired upon. He had put America in a full scale war. On the 8th of March 1965, 3500 marines came ashore at Da Nang. The Presidents and their Involvement Richard Nixon: 1969 to 1974 In 1969, Nixon began the removal of US soldiers via

Vietnamisation. It lasted until 1975. Extended war to Cambodia. Tactics: Viet Cong The Viet Cong created very unique traps that blended in with the forest. For example, the Viet Cong commonly used Punji traps. Large sharpened wooden spikes would be placed in a hole along a pathway, the holes would then be covered by leaves to hide

them. The VC also used a very elaborate tunnel system in the forest of Vietnam. 75 miles of underground tunnels were created to hide from the Americans. The tunnels were only just wide enough for a grown man to fit in them. Tactics: America Agent Orange: Agent Orange was a chemical used to kill trees and

plants. The plan was to destroy the forest and reveal the Viet Congs location. This did not work, instead the chemical poisoned to water supply in Vietnam and people are being born with disfigurements nowadays. Rolling Thunder: The US army planned to force a surrender by bombing Vietnamese towns and villages. The aim was to lower enemy morale, instead it only angered them more and the Americans lost the trust of the civilians.

Tactics: America (Part 2) Napalm: Napalm was made by using a gelling agent and petrol. This meant that it would stick to whatever it touched until it burnt away. The Americans planned to bomb villages that they suspected the Viet Cong to be in. All they did was kill civilians. Search and Destroy: The US army would search villages, if they suspected that the Viet Cong were in the village they would destroy everything. This often led to the death of innocent

people. The Viet Cong would help rebuild these villages and bury the dead. My Lai Massacre On March 16th 1968, Charlie Company entered the village of My Lai. They had received information saying that the Viet Cong were in the village. Charlie Company then killed 347 men, women and children in the

village. They were killed on sight. Only 3 weapons were recovered from the village and no Viet Cong were discovered. Lt William Calley was the only man to be convicted for the events after the US army pushed all the blame onto him. He was given a Tet Offensive The Tet Offensive was launched by Viet Cong forces in 1968. It was the coordinated strike of over 100 cities, towns and military

bases in South Vietnam. The Tet offensive showed American people that the war was an ever losing battle. The US army could never come back from the attacks against them. The Tet offensive caused huge losses to both sides, but it showed the US army that they could never defeat the Viet Cong. The Draft

The Vietnam war was the first war to be televised. This meant that every American saw what was happening in Vietnam. This stopped people from signing up. To combat low admissions conscription was introduced. If you were a male born between 1944 and 1950 you could be drafted. Many people refused to go to war. Most objectors were fined or sent to prison for this.

Kent State Protest On May 4th 1970 an anti-war protest was held at the Kent State University of Ohio. The Ohio national guard was called to the protest. Within 13 seconds 67 bullets were fired without warning. This killed four innocent people. The incident caused many Americans to stop believing in the US army and government. This led to the Americans not only losing

the war in Vietnam, but in America as well. Vietnamization Vietnamisation was Nixons desired policy to enable South Vietnam to take a greater responsibility for the war while America started a planned withdrawal, while at the same time supporting the government in Saigon in its fight against the Viet Cong.

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