Therapies Chapter 16 - Mrs. Short's AP Psychology Class
Therapies Chapter 16 AP Psychology Alice F. Short Hilliard Davidson High School Chapter Preview
Biological Therapies Psychotherapy Sociocultural Approaches and Issues Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Therapies and Health and Wellness Biological Therapies Biomedical Approach reduce/eliminate symptoms by altering body functioning Common Forms of Biological Therapy drug therapy
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) psychosurgery Drug Therapy antianxiety drugs commonly known as tranquilizers, drugs that reduce anxiety by making the individual calmer and less excitable benzodiazepines the antianxiety drugs that generally offer the greatest relief for anxiety symptoms potentially addictive bind to receptor cites of neurotransmitters that become overactive during anxiety
examples: Xanax, Valium, Librium nonbenzodiazepine buspirone (BuSpar) used to treat generalized anxiety disorder Drug Therapy antidepressant drugs drugs that regulate mood tricyclics 3-ringed molecular structure
believed to work by increasing neurotransmitters, especially serotonin and norepinephrine reduce symptoms of depression in 60-70 percent takes 2-4 weeks to improve mood side effects: restlessness, faintness, trembling, sleepiness, memory difficulties tetracyclics 4-ringed molecular structure a.k.a. noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs) increases norepinephrine and serotonin example: Remeron (mertazapine) most effective in reducing depression monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors block the enzyme monoamine oxidase (which breaks down serotonin and norepinephrine worse side effects: high blood pressure, stroke (esp. with fermented foods, drugs)
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) interfere with the reabsorption of serotonin in the brain examples: Prozac (fluoxetine), Paxil (paroxetine), Zoloft (sertraline) fewer side effects, still: insomnia, anxiety, headache, diarrhea, impaired sexual functioning Antidepressant Drugs 1996 2005 number of Americans prescribed antidepressants doubled anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder PTSD Bipolar Disorder
lithium the lightest of the solid elements in the periodic table of elements effective dosage is precariously close to toxic levels influences serotonin and norepinephrine (how unknown) weight gain, going off drug Risks of Antidepressants for Children FDA hearings on risk of suicide (2004) Black Box warning Drug Therapy antipsychotic drugs powerful drugs that diminish agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations, improve social behavior, and produce better sleep patterns in individuals with a
severe psychological disorder, especially schizophrenia small dosages over time, may combine with vocation, family and social skills training neuroleptics (side effect - tardive dyskinesia) most used ability to block dopamine action in the brain tardive dyskinesia a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary random movements of the facial muscles, tongue and mouth, as well as twitching of the neck, arms and legs 20% on neuroleptics develop (can develop w/o drugs atypical antipsychotic medications (introduced 1990s) lower side effects
affects dopamine and serotonin (mechanism unknown) examples: Clozaril (clozapine), Risperdal (risperidone) Drug Therapy Biological Therapies electroconvulsive therapy (a.k.a. shock therapy) small electric current produces a brief seizure used to treat major depressive disorder which has not responded to other treatments deep brain stimulation a procedure for treatmentresistant depression that involves the implantation of electrodes in the brain that emit signals to alter the brains electrical circuitry
treatment-resistant depression, OCD nucleus acumbens improved dramatically, still memory loss and cognitive impairments for acute depression, great risk of suicide Biological Therapies psychosurgery a biological therapy, will irreversible effects, that involves removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve the individuals adjustments prefrontal lobotomies
coined by Walter Freemen, lobotomobile today: small lesion in amygdala or another part of the limbic system OCD major depression bipolar disorders not schizophrenia
Insight Therapies insight therapies encourage self-awareness as the key to psychological health psychodynamic therapies humanistic therapies Psychotherapy psychotherapy (face-to-face and cybertherapy) a nonmedical process that helps people with psychological disodres recognize and overcome psychological and interpersonal difficulties 32% in 1996 20% in 2005
Preview of Psychotherapies psychodynamic therapies humanistic therapies behavior therapies cognitive therapies Psychodynamic Therapies Emphasis of this Approach unconscious mind therapeutic interpretation early childhood experiences Goals of Therapy
recognize maladaptive coping strategies identify sources of unconscious conflicts Psychodynamic Therapies Freudian Psychoanalysis Freuds therapeutic technique for analyzing an individuals unconscious thoughts free association a psychoanalytic technique that involves encouraging individuals to say aloud whatever comes to mind, no matter who trivial or embarrassing catharsis the release of emotional tension a person experiences when reliving an emotionally charged and conflicting experience interpretation a psychoanalysts search for symbolic, hidden meanings in what the client says and does during therapy
dream analysis a psychoanalytic technique for interpreting a persons dreams manifest content latent content transference a client's relating to the psychoanalyst in ways the reproduce or relive important relationships in the individuals life resistance a clients unconscious defense strategies that interfere with the psychoanalysts understanding of the individuals problems examples: showing up late/missing sessions, arguing, faking free associations Contemporary Psychodynamic Therapies still interested in childhood trauma accord more power to the conscious mind and a persons current relationships
less emphasis on sex Heinz Kohut (1977) therapist replaces unhealthy childhood relationship (empathic, understanding) Humanistic Therapies humanistic therapies treatments, unique in their emphasis on peoples self-healing capacities, that encourage clients to understand themselves and to grow personally self healing conscious thoughts self-fulfillment goals of therapy self-understanding
personal growth Rogers Client-Centered Therapy client-centered therapy also called Rogerian therapy or nondirective therapy, a form of humanistic therapy, developed by Rogers, in which the therapist provides a warm, supportive atmosphere to improve the clients selfconcept and to encourage the client to gain insight into problems identify and understand his or her own genuine feelings warm, supportive atmosphere active listening reflective speech a technique in which the therapist mirrors the clients own feelings back to the client
Rogers 3 essential elements to grow: unconditional positive regard empathy genuineness Behavior Therapies behavior therapies treatments, based on the behavioral and social cognitive theories of learning, that use principles of learning to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior emphasis: overt behavior change rather than insights into self or into underlying causes
goal: reduce or eliminate maladaptive behaviors common methods: classical and operant conditioning Behavior Therapies Classical Conditioning Techniques Treating Phobias systematic desensitization a method of behavior therapy that treats anxiety by teaching the client to associate deep relaxation with increasingly intense anxiety-producing situations (p. 533) develop hierarchy of fearful scenes learn relaxation techniques apply relaxation while imagining fearful scenes
Flooding intense exposure to feared stimuli without allowing avoidance Desensitization for Test Anxiety Aversive Conditioning noxious stimuli paired with conditioned stimulus
Behavior Therapies Operant Conditioning Techniques unlearning maladaptive behavior (e.g., OCD) through altered consequences. Applied Behavior Analysis positive reinforcement of adaptive behaviors extinguish maladaptive behaviors does not depend on gaining insight Cognitive Therapies cognitive therapies Emphasis of this Approach
thoughts (cognitions) are the primary source of psychological problems how we think controls how we feel attempt to change the individuals feelings and behaviors by changing cognitions focus on overt problems (unlike Freud) structured analysis and specific guidance (unlike Rogers) Goals of Therapy cognitive restructuring a general concept for changing a pattern of thought that is presumed to be causing maladaptive behavior or emotion
Cognitive Therapies Albert Elliss Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy assertion that individuals develop a psychological disorder because of irrational and self-defeating beliefs directive, persuasive, confrontational musterbating convert musts into realistic and logical thoughts eliminate beliefs through rational examination Becks Cognitive Therapy illogical automatic negative thoughts identify and challenge automatic thoughts
reflective, open-ended dialogue, less directive Both are more effective in treating depression than drugs.
challenge idiosyncratic meanings question the evidence reattribution examine options and alternatives decatastrophize fantasize consequences examine advantages and disadvantages turn adversity to advantage
guided association scaling thought stopping distraction labeling of distortions Table on p. 357 Cognitive Therapy Techniques Cognitive Therapy
Techniques Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Albert Bandura and Self Efficacy self-efficacy concept that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes cognitive-behavior therapy a therapy that combines cognitive therapy and behavior therapy with the goal of developing self-efficacy self-defeating thoughts incorporates behavior therapy self-instructional methods
Therapy Integrations Techniques from different therapies are combined for the benefit of the client (e.g., dialectical behavior therapy). Comparing Psychotherapies integrative therapy a combination of techniques from different therapies based on the therapists judgment of which particular methods will provide the greatest benefit for the client most therapists use an eclectic approach
How Does Therapy Affect the Brain? Brain Imaging Studies use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) shows that brain function can be normalized (e.g., cognitive remediation therapy increases prefrontal cortex activity in schizophrenics) Sociocultural Approaches Emphasis influence of various social/cultural factors views the individual as a part of a system of relationships that are influenced by various social and cultural factors
Approaches to Therapy group therapy a sociocultural approach to the treatment of psychological disorders that brings together individuals who share a particular psychological disorders in sessions that are typically led by a mental health professional
information universality others feel the same altruism others provide advice, sympathy and support experiencing a positive family group resembles (or is) a family development of social skills corrective feedback (accept from group) interpersonal learning training new behaviors Sociocultural Approaches Approaches to Therapy family therapy group therapy with a family validation understanding and acceptance of each family member (validates); finds positives reframing as family problems (not individual) structural change - restructure coalitions and roles
detriangulation shift attention away from scapegoat couples therapy group therapy with married or unmarried couples whose major problem lies within their relationship communication = most common problem Sociocultural Approaches Approaches to Therapy self-help support groups voluntary organizations of individuals who get together on a regular basis to discuss topics of common interest
paraprofessionals relatively cheap Example: Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) online support groups problems: pro-ana (pro-anorexia) Web sites community mental health (1960s) changes in attitudes toward people with psychological disorders involves training teachers, ministers, family physicians, nurses, and
others who directly interact with community members to offer lay counseling and workshops Community Mental Health Act of 1963 deinstitutionalization transferred from mental institutions to community-based facilities (rise in homelessness) Sociocultural Approaches and Issues Cultural Perspectives individualistic v. collectivistic cultures collectivist group therapy may be more effective ethnicity match between client and therapist
ethnic-specific service gender balance between independence and relatedness feminist therapies Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Research results show that all therapies are winners. dodo bird hypothesis Common Themes in Successful Psychotherapy expectations of help increased sense of competence
emotional arousal is a motivator therapeutic alliance - the relationship between the therapist and clientan important element of successful psychotherapy client factors (active engagement) Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Effects of Therapy on Health and Wellness stress reduction in cancer patients reduces physical health risks in those who are depressed
not only reduces symptoms, but enhances psychological wellness well-being therapy (WBT) short-term, problem-focused, directive notice and celebrate positive experiences Chapter Summary Describe the biological approaches to therapy. Define and characterize four types of psychotherapy.
Explain the sociocultural approaches and issues in treatment. Discuss the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Discuss the impact that therapy has on health and wellness. Chapter Summary Biological Therapies drug therapy electroconvulsive therapy psychosurgery Psychodynamic Therapies
cognitive-behavior therapies Chapter Summary Sociocultural Approaches and Issues group, family, and couples therapy self-help groups and community mental health cultural perspectives Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Therapies and Health and Wellness physical health and preventing disorders
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