Thin airfoil - Excel Group Institutions

Thin airfoil - Excel Group Institutions

L I O F R I THIN A N

IO T A IC L P P A S

IT THEORY AND WHAT IS AIRFOIL? AN AIRFOIL (AMERICAN ENGLISH) OR AEROFOIL (BRITISH ENGLISH) IS THE SHAPE OF A WING, BLADE (OF A PROPELLER, ROTOR, OR TURBINE), OR SAIL (AS SEEN IN CROSS-SECTION). AN AIRFOIL-SHAPED BODY MOVED THROUGH A FLUID PRODUCES AN AERODYNAMIC FORCE. THE COMPONENT OF THIS FORCE PERPENDICULAR TO THE DIRECTION OF MOTION IS CALLED LIFT.

THE COMPONENT PARALLEL TO THE DIRECTION OF MOTION IS CALLED DRAG. SUBSONIC FLIGHT AIRFOILS HAVE A CHARACTERISTIC SHAPE WITH A ROUNDED LEADING EDGE, FOLLOWED BY A SHARP TRAILING EDGE, OFTEN WITH A SYMMETRIC CURVATURE OF UPPER AND LOWER SURFACES. FOILS OF SIMILAR FUNCTION DESIGNED WITH WATER AS THE WORKING FLUID ARE CALLED HYDROFOILS. LIFT ON THE AIRFOIL THE LIFT ON AN AIRFOIL IS PRIMARILY THE RESULT OF ITS ANGLE OF ATTACK AND SHAPE. WHEN ORIENTED AT A SUITABLE ANGLE, THE AIRFOIL DEFLECTS THE ONCOMING AIR (FOR FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT, A DOWNWARD

FORCE), RESULTING IN A FORCE ON THE AIRFOIL IN THE DIRECTION OPPOSITE TO THE DEFLECTION. THIS FORCE IS KNOWN AS AERODYNAMIC FORCE AND CAN BE RESOLVED INTO TWO COMPONENTS: LIFT AND DRAG. MOST FOIL SHAPES REQUIRE A POSITIVE ANGLE OF ATTACK TO GENERATE LIFT, BUT CAMBERED AIRFOILS CAN GENERATE LIFT AT ZERO ANGLE OF ATTACK. THIS "TURNING" OF THE AIR IN THE VICINITY OF THE AIRFOIL CREATES CURVED STREAMLINES, RESULTING IN LOWER PRESSURE ON ONE SIDE AND HIGHER PRESSURE ON THE OTHER. THIS PRESSURE DIFFERENCE IS ACCOMPANIED BY A VELOCITY DIFFERENCE, VIA BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE, SO THE RESULTING FLOWFIELD ABOUT THE AIRFOIL HAS A HIGHER AVERAGE VELOCITY ON THE UPPER SURFACE THAN ON THE LOWER SURFACE. THE LIFT FORCE CAN BE RELATED DIRECTLY TO THE AVERAGE TOP/BOTTOM VELOCITY DIFFERENCE WITHOUT COMPUTING THE PRESSURE BY USING THE CONCEPT OF

CIRCULATION AND THE KUTTA-JOUKOWSKI THEOREM THIN AIRFOIL THEORY THIN AIRFOIL THEORY IS A SIMPLE THEORY OF AIRFOILS THAT RELATES ANGLE OF ATTACK TO LIFT FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE, INVISCID FLOWS. IT WAS DEVISED BY GERMAN-AMERICAN MATHEMATICIAN MAX MUNK AND FURTHER REFINED BY BRITISH AERODYNAMICIST HERMANN GLAUERT AND OTHERS IN THE 1920S. THE THEORY IDEALIZES THE FLOW AROUND AN AIRFOIL AS TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW AROUND A THIN AIRFOIL. IT CAN BE IMAGINED AS ADDRESSING AN

AIRFOIL OF ZERO THICKNESS AND INFINITE WINGSPAN. THEORY NOTABLE IN: THIN AIRFOIL THEORY WAS PARTICULARLY NOTABLE IN ITS DAY BECAUSE IT PROVIDED A SOUND THEORETICAL BASIS FOR THE FOLLOWING IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF AIRFOILS IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW: ON A SYMMETRIC AIRFOIL, THE CENTER OF PRESSURE AND AERODYNAMIC CENTER LIES EXACTLY ONE QUARTER OF THE CHORD BEHIND THE LEADING EDGE.

ON A CAMBERED AIRFOIL, THE AERODYNAMIC CENTER LIES EXACTLY ONE QUARTER OF THE CHORD BEHIND THE LEADING EDGE. THE SLOPE OF THE LIFT COEFFICIENT VERSUS ANGLE OF ATTACK LINE WHAT IT DOES NOT ACCOUNT? THIN AIRFOIL THEORY DOES NOT ACCOUNT FOR THE STALL OF THE AIRFOIL,

WHICH USUALLY OCCURS AT AN ANGLE OF ATTACK BETWEEN 10 AND 15 FOR TYPICAL AIRFOILS.IN THE MID-LATE 2000'S, HOWEVER, A THEORY PREDICTING THE ONSET OF LEADING EDGE STALL WAS PROPOSED BY WALLACE J. MORRIS II IN HIS DOCTORAL THESIS.[17] MORRIS'S SUBSEQUENT REFINEMENTS CONTAIN THE DETAILS ON THE CURRENT STATE OF THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE ON THE LEADING EDGE STALL PHENOMENON PREDICTIONS OF MORRISS THEORY

MORRIS'S THEORY PREDICTS THE CRITICAL ANGLE OF ATTACK FOR LEADINGEDGE STALL ONSET AS THE CONDITION AT WHICH A GLOBAL SEPARATION ZONE IS PREDICTED IN THE SOLUTION FOR THE INNER FLOW. MORRIS'S THEORY DEMONSTRATES THAT A SUBSONIC FLOW ABOUT A THIN AIRFOIL CAN BE DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF AN OUTER REGION, AROUND MOST OF THE AIRFOIL CHORD, AND AN INNER REGION, AROUND THE NOSE, THAT ASYMPTOTICALLY MATCH EACH OTHER. AS THE FLOW IN THE OUTER REGION IS DOMINATED BY CLASSICAL THIN AIRFOIL THEORY, MORRIS'S EQUATIONS EXHIBIT MANY COMPONENTS OF THIN AIRFOIL THEORY.

AIRFOILS THIN AIRFOIL VISUALISATION THIN AIRFOIL AIRFOIL VIDEO-VISUALISATION

U O Y K N THA

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