THINK ABOUT THIS FOR A SECOND… - Best Custom Essay Papers
SUPERVISION & TREATMENT OF SEXUAL OFFENDERS Presented by John Lynch, Yamhill Co. Juv. Dept. THINK ABOUT THIS FOR A SECOND Almost every hand youve
shaken has touched a penis. LEARNING GOAL To gain knowledge regarding the broad range of considerations when supervising offenders who have committed sexual offenses and to examine effective intervention strategies. WE WILL COVER
Myths about sex offenders Common characteristics of sex offenders Sexual offense recidivism rates Risk factors that are/are not associated with recidivism Common tactics of sex offenders WE WILL COVER Success-oriented supervision model The importance of communication
Specialized supervision conditions and success-oriented goals How to respond to violations WE WILL COVER Effective interventions Common treatment goals Use of the polygraph Doing your job better & reducing your stress
N O I S R E V R E D N E F
F SEX O Debunking the Myths 1.Most sexual offenses are committed by strangers. Most sexual offenses are committed by someone known to the victim or victims family, regardless if the victim is a child or an adult. Approximately 60% of boys and 80% of girls who are sexually victimized are abused by someone known to the child or the childs family. From 2005 to 2010, 78% of sexual violence
involved an offender who was a family member, intimate partner, friend, or acquaintance. Victim Relationship In a 2009 study conducted by the US Dept. of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 13,471 juvenile sex offender cases were evaluated which revealed that in 88.2% of reported incidents, the victim was either a family member or acquaintance. Only 2.5% involved a victim who was considered a stranger to the offender.
Rape and sexual assault victimizations against females by victim-offender relationship 19941998, 19992004, and 20052010 VictimOffender Relationship 1994-1998 1999-2004 2005-2010
Partner Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 19942010. Debunking the Myths 2.Sexual offense rates are higher than ever and continue to climb. Despite the increase in publicity about sexual crimes, from 1995 to 2010, the estimated annual rate of female (age 12 or older) rape or sexual assault victimizations has declined 58%.
Debunking the Myths 3.Only a fraction of those who commit sexual offenses are apprehended and convicted for their crimes. Debunking the Myths Debunking the Myths 4.Public awareness and education about sexual offenses has lead to an increase of reporting such incidents. Thats crap!
Rape and sexual assault victimizations against females reported and not reported to police 19941998, 19992004, and 20052010 Reporting to Police 1994-1998 1999-2004 2005-2010
Not Reported 71% 59% 64% Reported 29%
41% 36% Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 19942010. Debunking the Myths 5.Few females commit sex offenses. According to the 2012 FBI Uniform Crime Report, females made up 0.9% of total arrests for forcible rape or other sex
offenses, which is down from 1.18% in 2008. In this same report, juvenile females represented 1.5% of all juvenile sex offense arrests in 2012 which remained the same since 2008. SEX OFFENDER CHARACTERISTICS Have fewer criminal offenses Are less antisocial Are more likely to have been sexually abused
Are more likely to have been exposed to sexual violence SEX OFFENDER CHARACTERISTICS Are more likely to experience early exposure to pornography Most began offending before age 12 Have atypical sexual interests Tend to be more socially isolated, anxious, and have lower selfesteem
SEX OFFENDER CHARACTERISTICS Deny committing the offense Understate offense information Understate numbers of victims Most victims are known to the offender (Over 90%) Victim median age is 7 years SEX OFFENDER CHARACTERISTICS Under 5% are actively psychotic
Are a heterogeneous group, spanning the entire social spectrum Many achieve average or higher grades Median age is 14-15 years * Debunking the Myths 6.Most sex offenders re-offendonce a sex offender, always a sex offender. Those who commit sex offenses are
highly unlikely to commit another sexual offense. 2003 study of 9,691 adult male sex offenders found a sexual recidivism rate of 5.3% for the entire sample, based on an arrest during the 3-year follow-up period. Treatment vs. No Treatment 5.17% vs. RECIDIVISM Recidivism rates in Oregon for youth who sexually offend remain relatively low. Fiscal year 2013 36 month follow up on
juvenile sex offenders under OYA supervision: SO Probation youth 7.4% recidivism (person crimes = 21.7% / property crimes = 20.4%) SO Parole youth 11.1% recidivism (person crimes = 31.4% / property crimes = 35.5%) 5.3% recidivism among 1123 OYA registered Juvenile SOs with 16 year follow-up. RECIDIVISM Meta-analysis of 63 data sets that included 11,219 juvenile sex offenders (Caldwell 2010).
months # of Studies Sex. Recidivism % Recidivism type Arrest 52 Conviction 11 Population Community
Debunking the Myths 7.Current public safety laws (registration, notification, residency/premises restrictions) have not been effective in reducing the number of sex crimes committed. A 2007 study conducted by the Minnesota Dept. of Corrections found that only 27 out of 224 (12%) sex offenders had contact with their victim(s) within one mile of the offenders home. NOT ONE offender had contact with a victim near a school, park, or playground.
Sex offender registries and premises restrictions are designed to target repeat offenders. Nearly 96% of all sex crimes are Debunking the Myths 8.Sex offenders typically are victims of child sexual abuse who grow up to be adult sex offenders. Results from recent studies vary, but most report that about 50% of sex offenders have a reported childhood
abuse history. Although a history of sexual abuse may increase the risk for a person to commit a sex offense as an adult, the majority of children who are victims of abuse never go on to sexually offend. Potentially Misleading Risk Factors Sexual abuse during childhood Denial of sexual crime Lack of victim empathy Use of force/violence in offending
Low motivation for treatment at intake Neglect or physical abuse during childhood Low self-esteem / loneliness Factors Associated with Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders The strongest predictors of sexual recidivism: 1) Sexual drive/preoccupation (deviant
sexual interests, stranger or multiple victims, continued offending despite being sanctioned) 2) Antisocial orientation (antisocial personality, antisocial traits, history of rule violations, general self-regulation problems / impulsivity) Factors Associated with Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders Significant relationship to sexual recidivism:
Attitudes supportive of sexual offending / antisocial behaviors Intimacy deficits (intimate relationship conflicts / emotional identification with children) Incomplete offense-specific treatment Debunking the Myths 9.Most sex offenders rely on some type of force or aggression in the commission of a sexual offense. National statistics regarding non-injury to the victim during offense:
Juvenile Juvenile Juvenile Juvenile SOs under 12 88.8% SOs 12 & over 86.9%
female SOs 87.6% male SOs 87.0% SEX OFFENDER TACTICS With the following tactics, rely on your instincts; consult with treatment provider and/or supervisor Denial Minimization Justification/Rationalization
Blaming SEX OFFENDER TACTICS Manipulative intent (false trust) Sharing intimate/personal secrets Convincing of their goodness Giving impression of responsibility Befriending physically/emotionally vulnerable people SEX OFFENDER TACTICS
Discussing sexual scenarios Boundary violations Invading body space Horseplay Demands time/attention Attempts to discredit others SEX OFFENDER TACTICS Blackmail Bribery or trickery Ingratiation Targets with demeaning comments,
sexual put downs, or sexual profanity Attempts to verbally control interviews * Debunking the Myths 10. It is less expensive to provide a sex offender with one year of treatment than one year of incarceration. One year of intensive treatment (2 individual sessions and 1 group session per week) in the
community would cost around $10,400 per year. The cost for holding a youth in a detention facility for one year would be about $54,750 (at $150 per day) and no treatment would be done. Treatment Works! For sex offender treatment to be most effective, it should be empirically based, offense-specific, and comprehensive. Such treatment should address: Victimization awareness and empathy training
Cognitive restructuring Sexual abuse cycle and relapse prevention Interpersonal skills development Treatment Works! As stated earlier, research has shown a strong link between failure to complete sex offender treatment and increased risk to re-offend. Research has also consistently shown that for those offenders who have completed treatment, their risk of committing another crime (sexual or
otherwise) is lower than those who have not received treatment. Treatment Works! A 2002 meta-analysis on the effectiveness of current treatment methods for sex offenders showed, for the first time, a significant difference between recidivism rates for sex offenders who were treated and those who were not. Sexual Recidivism no treatment = 17.4%
Sexual Recidivism treatment = 9.9% General Recidivism no treatment = 51% General Recidivism treatment = 32% SUCCESSORIENTED APPROACH TO SUPERVISION WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO FOCUS ON SUCCESS? Ensure that offenders meet expectations Hold offender accountable for
behaviors Collaborate with others to improve functioning and promote stability of IT IS ON US AS JUVENILE JUSTICE PROFESSIONALS TO Demonstrate the desire to work collaboratively COLLABORATION ENHANCES SUPERVISION PLANNING
Access key information from multiple sources Cover all bases Increased awareness of changes over time IT IS ON US AS JUVENILE JUSTICE PROFESSIONALS TO Demonstrate the desire to work
collaboratively Ask for participation and help from the outset Solicit family perspectives and goals Reinforce the positive outcomes that we are working towards IT IS ON US AS JUVENILE JUSTICE PROFESSIONALS TO Educate others about the system Explain risk/protective factors Develop trust over time through
Follow through Mutual accountability Communication COMMUNICATION IS IT DIFFERENT? Keep in mind your role and your goal! Most of us are good at addressing a conflict, but this may be different. You must constantly be assessing! Assessing what????
Sex offender-specific risk factors General criminogenic needs Protective factors and strengths Responsivity COMMUNICATION Communication is key Focus on rapport building More listening less talking Utilize your active listening skills
Emphasize congruence: Your tone of voice, body language and content of your message should fit together COMMUNICATION Ask open ended questions Employ active listening skills Paraphrase, clarification, and feedback Provide positive reinforcement Take your time Expect denial
COMMUNICATION Watch for facial and non-verbal cues Learn to be comfortable with silence Note inconsistencies challenge now or later? Ask for help with any confusion THE IMPORTANCE OF CANDOR As hard as it may be to say, or for
families to hear, tell them the truth Be genuine demonstrating honesty in what you say, feel, and do Be respectful And never forget Daltons advice from The Double Deuce BE NICE BE !!! NICE SUCCESS-ORIENTED GOALS
Participate in pro-social recreational and leisure activities Achieve and maintain positive community adjustment Establish positive peer groups Secure appropriate employment SPECIALIZED SUPERVISION CONDITIONS Technology restrictions - we will ALWAYS
be behind! Internet accessible devices, such as No internet in bedrooms Internet blocks and monitoring programs (i.e. Net Nanny, Covenant Eyes) SPECIALIZED SUPERVISION CONDITIONS Be aware of hidden vault apps where pictures and videos can be stored on cell phones Limits on movies, TV programming, and
video games Prior approval of extracurricular and employment activities Restrictions on contact with victims or other vulnerable individuals Follow all treatment recommendations Polygra ph CURRENT EQUIPMENT DISCLOSURE POLYGRAPHS
To help break denial To help complete a sexual history Usually administered after several months of initial treatment Used to verify accuracy and veracity of written sexual history
MAINTENANCE POLYGRAPHS Used to determine compliance with treatment or probation conditions Generally administered every 3-6 months Individual polygraph examiners will vary in test administration SPECIFIC-ISSUE POLYGRAPHS
Entire test covers one specific issue or detail: Did you insert your penis into Sallys vagina? Did you touch Sallys bare breast? USE OF THE POLYGRAPH Polygraph results should never be the sole factor in making case decisions.
POLYGRAPH DATA Victims disclosed pre-polygraph: 63 (avg. of 2.5 per offender) Victims disclosed post-polygraph: 403 (avg. of 16 per offender) Gender of victims: Male - 63 (15%) Female - 340 (85%) Source: Data from 25 youth who passed disclosure polygraphs at MacLaren Youth Correctional Facility, OR (1995/1996)
POLYGRAPH DATA Age range of victims: Male: 1-19 (Median age: 10) Female: 1-25 (Median age: 13) Hands-on offenses pre-polygraph: <700 Hands-on offenses post-polygraph: 8351 Average # of offenses post-
Source: Data from 25 youth who passed disclosure polygraphs at MacLaren Youth Correctional Facility, OR (1995/1996) polygraph: 334 POLYGRAPH DATA Age of offender at time of first offense: 5 - 8 yrs: 9 -12 yrs:
13-15 yrs: 36% 48% 16% 84% Offenders who claimed to be victims of sexual abuse: 92%
Source: Data from 25 youth who passed disclosure polygraphs at MacLaren Youth Correctional Facility, OR (1995/1996) HINDMAN STUDIES (ADULTS) Self-Reported Polygraphed Average (347) (454) # of victims 2.4
Sexually abused as child 64% Sexually abused others as child 24% 11.5 30% 72% Analysis of three studies conducted by Jan Hindman 1978-1999
Post11.6 83% *Another study of 87 outpatient juveniles indicated a rate of 40%. Nampa Boys Home, Nampa, ID, 1994 Study conducted by Jan Hindman CANT/SHOULDNT TEST Child under 12 Offenders with an I.Q. under 80 Actively psychotic offenders
Those sleep deprived/exhausted People suffering recent trauma Offenders taking certain medications (may not be able to respond) * BEING BETTER AT YOUR JOB & REDUCING YOUR STRESS Be Clear
Dont create confusion with words or phrases offender may not understand Avoid the use of jargon Be Consistent families and offenders should KNOW what to expect BEING BETTER AT YOUR JOB & REDUCING YOUR STRESS
Confrontwhen necessary And remember its NOT personal, so dont make it so! NEXT WEEK Crimes of Violence Terrorism &
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